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week2

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Oren Amitay

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Attachment System:
-John Bowlby: British psychologist - Bowl by had been asked by the
British government to look into the question of why so many children
following the war who had been displaced, orphaned or hospitalized
seemed to be so many unexpected adjustment difficulties.
-Bowlby was one of the first to go and research about the primacy of the
infant-caregiver relation and how important it is for infants to
experience a warm, intimate and consistent relationship with their
caregivers.
-Attachment Behavioral system: an evolved goal directed, behavioral
system that was presumed to regulate childrens distances from their
caregivers.
-Such a system would have been very adaptive over the human
evolution the thinking is that children who arent bonded to their
parents and parents who arent bonded to their children are at an
adaptive disadvantage. If children wonder away from their parents w/o
any distress at such an experience are at greater risk of being
injured/killed which limits the reproductive fitness.
-Such a system would have evolved, because it ensured that caregivers
and infants remained in close proximity, which meant that caregivers
would provide the care and protection that children need in order to
survive to reproductive age. The attachment system is a behavior
regulating system that fxns like a barometer/thermostat, regulating
proximity. When the circumstances are safe and secure the acceptable
distance from a caregiver/mom is larger and children can stray further
away from where their caregivers are. When situations change and
become more uncertain and unsafe, when strangers appear, the idea is
that the new appreciation of the situation causes the child to seek
proximity, to return to the care of the mother and so the acceptable
distance from the mother to the child and mother depends on how
familiar and unfamiliar the situation is.
-Bowlby speculated that the mother plays a very important fxn in the
social and emotional development of children. They serve 2 specific
fxns: 1. secure base mom serves as a base of operations. When
things are ok, the toddler is free to explore the surroundings; the
mother provides the secure launching pad for such exploratory
behavior. When situations change, and when circumstances become
less predictable, the protection of the mother is sought as a 2. Safe
haven.
-The attachment process is for a primary caregiver not just the
mother.
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-Plasticity of the system the attachment system was not thought to be
hardwired or written in stone, it was thought to be caliberated and
adjusted over the course of development. Based on ones developmental
experiences, ones attachement system got finetuned/recaliberated to
fxn particularly well in the developmental context of each particular
child. We all come into the world with the same attachement system
but how the attachment systems get fine tuned and how they get
adjusted/caliberated depend on our unique developmental experiences.
If our developmental experiences, are diff then our attachement
systems will be caliberated differently, and the way we behave in
attachment situations will be different.
-Internal working model it doesnt only regulate behavior but it
generates internal mental representations of the infant in relation to
significant others. Inside the psychological architecture of each of us,
there is a representation we have of ourselves and of caregivers, and of
whether or not we are worthy of the attention, care and protection that
caregivers provide and whether or not caregivers are trustworthy in
terms of the care and protection that they offer. There is
representation of our self (how good/worthy we are), representation of
caregiver (how trustworthy, reliable, dependable they are of sources of
care). Working models may change b/w people depending upon the
early developmental experiences.
-The primary fxn of the attachment system was to monitor proximity
and distance from caregivers. There is a very specific sequence of
responses that a child goes through when they are separated from a
caregiver. When the child is separated from a mother the 1st response
is PROTEST. Ex: cry, yell, scream in order to get the mothers
attention serves an adaptive fxn. The protest of the child
disturbs/distresses the mother so that she reduces the distance b/w the
mother and the child. This is relevant to survival
-If the mother does not respond to the childs protest, the 2nd response Is
despair. Rather than being angry and vocal the child now softens its
vocal behavior and instead moves into a solemn sad despairing mood.
Angry/frustrated sad forlorn.
-In the time that the child is despairing, the mother does not return,
the 3rd stage is detachment where the child shuts down its protesting
and despairing behaviors. The child feels at peace with the mothers
absence. This can be considered to be an adaptive feature. Ex: if this is
a child in the Pleistocene era and the mother cannot return for some
reason, then the longer the child shouts and uses vocal cues the more it
signals to its environment that the child is alone and is vulnerable.
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Protest turns to despair and despair turns into detachment, so that the
cuing fxn of the attachment system turns itself off eventually.
-Ainsworths interests were to construct a structured, standardized,
testing environment in which you could elicit the separation response
in children.
-Strange situation: brief standardized sequence of scenarios that are
presented to infants. There are 7 steps that are always followed in the
same order.
-Stranger same sex (woman)
-Goal was to show that infants do demonstrate the expected sequence
of responses when separated from mothers, and when potentially
threatening individuals (strangers) are introduced into the
environment.
-The responses of the children were however very varied. They respond
very differently to the same standardized situation.
-According to Ainsworth - 3 separate classes/types of children
attachment styles differences in how the attachment system has
been fine tuned/calibrated as a result of the developmental histories of
each of the children.
-2/3rds of children securely attached (B) babies
-Securely attached children demonstrate exploration when brought into
the strange situation. They are free to use the mother as a secure base,
and then explore their surroundings. When the mothers leave, they
experience, separation anxiety. They show distress sometimes, they
are not always happy. When mother returns, the securely attachment
baby is happy. They accept the mothers return, they forgive her for
her departure, and welcome the reunion period. They seek her out
when she returns to the return, they seek proximity and express
warmth and affection to her.
-Avoidant babies (A) babies ¼ of children are indistinguishable
from the securely attached babies when they enter the room with the
mom. When the mom leaves however the children are now anxious
about the separation, they are not distressed about it. They dont
protest the mothers absence. When the mother returns, they are not
relieved by her presence. They dont seek her out, they are not
comforted, and they are no more comforted by her return than they are
distressed by her absence. They avoid the intimacy/proximity of
mothers.
-Resistant (Ambivalent) babies - 15% - seem much more anxious in the
entirety of the strange situation. These children when brought into the
room, dont explore the room, rather, they stay closer to the mother
3
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Description
Attachment System: - John Bowlby: British psychologist - Bowl by had been asked by the British government to look into the question of why so many children following the war who had been displaced, orphaned or hospitalized seemed to be so many unexpected adjustment difficulties. - Bowlby was one of the first to go and research about the primacy of the infant-caregiver relation and how important it is for infants to experience a warm, intimate and consistent relationship with their caregivers. - Attachment Behavioral system: an evolved goal directed, behavioral system that was presumed to regulate childrens distances from their caregivers. - Such a system would have been very adaptive over the human evolution the thinking is that children who arent bonded to their parents and parents who arent bonded to their children are at an adaptive disadvantage. If children wonder away from their parents wo any distress at such an experience are at greater risk of being injuredkilled which limits the reproductive fitness. - Such a system would have evolved, because it ensured that caregivers and infants remained in close proximity, which meant that caregivers would provide the care and protection that children need in order to survive to reproductive age. The attachment system is a behavior regulating system that fxns like a barometerthermostat, regulating proximity. When the circumstances are safe and secure the acceptable distance from a caregivermom is larger and children can stray further away from where their caregivers are. When situations change and become more uncertain and unsafe, when strangers appear, the idea is that the new appreciation of the situation causes the child to seek proximity, to return to the care of the mother and so the acceptable distance from the mother to the child and mother depends on how familiar and unfamiliar the situation is. - Bowlby speculated that the mother plays a very important fxn in the social and emotional development of children. They serve 2 specific fxns: 1. secure base mom serves as a base of operations. When things are ok, the toddler is free to explore the surroundings; the mother provides the secure launching pad for such exploratory behavior. When situations change, and when circumstances become less predictable, the protection of the mother is sought as a 2. Safe haven. - The attachment process is for a primary caregiver not just the mother. 1 www.notesolution.com
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