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Final

Lecture 12 Notes for Final

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Lecture 12
McClellands Definition of a Motive/Need:
A recurrent preference or readiness for a particular quality of
experience, which energizes, directs, and selects behavior in certain
situations
Motive Conscious Intention
Motives (Why?) Traits (What?)
Motivations and Needs are the same thing for McClelland. He introduced the idea of an
implicit motive, the motivation that exists inside of us, but that is outside our conscious.
Motives and traits interact/combine to predict certain outcomes.
Motives are different from traits. Traits refer to the questions of What?(What
feelings is someone prone to having? What thoughts does someone have?) Motivation
refers to the Why?
There are certain motivations that lie outside of conscious awareness and they play a
profound role in shaping our behaviour.
Given our motivational preparedness/preferences, we see the world differently.
If the profound things that influence peoples personalities lie outside conscious
awareness, than we cant rely on self-report. How then, do we get access to those
implicit motivations? McClelland pioneers the TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)
(Participant looks at a series of standardized pictures and has to write a story in
response to this standardized series of pictures)
The notion behind the TAT is that when faced with an ambiguous situation, and when
asked to make meaning of it, what we do is we rely on our own organizations of
motivations and concerns and hopes and fears and we project all these onto the
characters we are creating, because the cards/pictures themselves have no motivational
content.
McClelland began his studies with Achievement Motivation (the need for achievement).
He believed the need for achievement is an implicit motivation and because of this, they
are not conscious to us. So how do we use the TAT to measure Achievement
Motivation? What we need is a scoring system.
We need to create experimental conditions that will temporarily raise their achievement
motivation (will temporarily put achievement on their mind). After the cognitive tests, he
told one group that the tests will reveal what their leadership and intelligence is
(emotive arousal condition). To another group, he told that the cognitive tests were
still in development, that they would not indicate anything (neutral testing conditions).
Both groups were then made to write stories for images presented. By analyzing the
resultant stories, the predominant themes in the emotively aroused group could be
identified and these themes then became part of a scoring system for subsequent
experimental groups.
www.notesolution.com
Criticisms of the TAT
-Little internal consistency between stories (poor reliability)
-Poor criterion validity
-Poor convergent validity.
McClelland said that we should not expect the TAT results to match with those of self-
report because the motivations are unconscious, but still the critics have raise poor
convergent validity as a concern.
Also, once the subjects are informed that they dont have to come up with new stories
for each card, the TAT becomes more reliable.
Achievement motivation
n Ach Defined:
Recurrent concerns with doing things better and with surpassing
standards of excellence
“Building a better mousetrap
n Ach = the need to achieve making things better.
Achievement Imagery — a character in the story wants to perform better either by:
Being involved in a long-term achievement project
Meeting an internal standard of excellence
Outperforming someone else
Doing something unique
n Ach predicts entrepreneurship (business world well-being), but only up to a point,
because they cannot delegate.
As McClelland approached the mid of his career, his interests moved away from n Ach
and towards n Pow (Need for Power Motivation).
n Pow predicts readiness to have an impact and influence, because power is about
impact and influence.
Power Motivation
n Pow Defined:
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 12 McClellands Definition of a MotiveNeed: A recurrent preference or readiness for a particular quality of experience, which energizes, directs, and selects behavior in certain situations Motive Conscious Intention Motives (Why?) Traits (What?) Motivations and Needs are the same thing for McClelland. He introduced the idea of an implicit motive, the motivation that exists inside of us, but that is outside our conscious. Motives and traits interactcombine to predict certain outcomes. Motives are different from traits. Traits refer to the questions of What? (What feelings is someone prone to having? What thoughts does someone have?) Motivation refers to the Why? There are certain motivations that lie outside of conscious awareness and they play a profound role in shaping our behaviour. Given our motivational preparednesspreferences, we see the world differently. If the profound things that influence peoples personalities lie outside conscious awareness, than we cant rely on self-report. How then, do we get access to those implicit motivations? McClelland pioneers the TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) (Participant looks at a series of standardized pictures and has to write a story in response to this standardized series of pictures) The notion behind the TAT is that when faced with an ambiguous situation, and when asked to make meaning of it, what we do is we rely on our own organizations of motivations and concerns and hopes and fears and we project all these onto the characters we are creating, because the cardspictures themselves have no motivational content. McClelland began his studies with Achievement Motivation (the need for achievement). He believed the need for achievement is an implicit motivation and because of this, they are not conscious to us. So how do we use the TAT to measure Achievement Motivation? What we need is a scoring system. We need to create experimental conditions that will temporarily raise their achievement motivation (will temporarily put achievement on their mind). After the cognitive tests, he told one group that the tests will reveal what their leadership and intelligence is (emotive arousal condition). To another group, he told that the cognitive tests were still in development, that they would not indicate anything (neutral testing conditions). Both groups were then made to write stories for images presented. By analyzing the resultant stories, the predominant themes in the emotively aroused group could be identified and these themes then became part of a scoring system for subsequent experimental groups. www.notesolution.com
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