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Final

Lecture 19 - notes for final

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Lecture 19
Parapraxes Freudian slips of the tongue
Freud was introduced at the beginning of the course to illustrate an example of a
personality theory. Although the Freudian view is now obsolete, it offered a
structural, detailed, unifying theory of personality behaviour and development.
From a structural view, he distinguished between 3 levels of the psyche: Id, Ego,
Superego.
He also made a dynamical distinction between the conscious self, the
preconscious and the unconscious mind. There are some tensions between
these levels, as anxiety provokes thoughts and urges, and then these become
repressed into the unconscious.
From a developmental view, Freud defined the oral, anal, phallic, latent and
genital phases, each involving the organization of the libido around a particular
erogenous zone.
Classic personality theory tried to explain all the personality differences and
commonalities, while contemporary personality theory tends to be much more
limited in scope.
Freud left a legacy that deserves respect he introduced the “talking cureas an
extension of his theorizing about personality. Psychotherapy has demonstrated
its efficacy in treating a wide range of conditions.
Even though most clinical psychologists are now not trained in psychotherapy,
every good clinician incorporates into his/her experience a good chunk of
Freudian thinking, particularly, the importance of early childhood development
and attachment experiences, the fact that people come to therapy when they are
at their most desperate, and that even thought they come to therapy
wholeheartedly wanting your help, their unconscious mind will do everything
possible to undermine the therapeutic process.
Basic instincts that underlie human behaviour, in Freuds view are sex and
aggression. Everything we do is an unconscious manifestation of either sex
(Libido/Eros) or aggression (Phanitose).
The idea of defence mechanisms is essential to Freudian thought. Repression
(that which is intolerable to the self, we simply push out of awareness) is the first
line of defence, but when it fails, theres a whole suite of secondary mechanisms
www.notesolution.com
that we can call upon, and every person has a set of defence mechanisms that
they rely on most frequently to protect them from anxiety (that core concept
referring to the conflicts between the various structures of the psyche when the
ego is loosing control over the ID or the superego).
Extending from these concepts to the arena of human behaviour, we must now
entertain the discussion on the distinction Freud made between text manifest
content and subtext latent content; there is how things seem on the surface,
and then how they really are underneath, and that difference must be respected.
Things are never as they seem! And so, there is always with regards to human
behaviour, the appearance of behaviour, the surface level, the conscious level of
personality the manifest content/level. (the thoughts that are going through your
mind, the dream you had last night, etc)
Freud would argue, however, that in order to truly understand personality, one
must understand that the manifest emerges out of a horde of competing latent
material, that there is all of this hidden, latent, unconscious material, that gives
rise to the manifest level. There is the dream you recall having, and than there is
the underlying content of the dream. And in a Freudian sense, if you have been
dreaming properly, you wont know the meaning of your dream.
Therefore, the latent content DETERMINES the manifest content. But there is so
much latent material, that any manifest behaviour is not just determined, but
overdetermined!
This notion that there are so many latent elements that are competing to be
expressed, according to Freud, is best viewed as a kind of treaty. Any time you
act, you dream, its a compromise, a treaty, which served to keep all the
competing elements at bay.
Think of it as a dam. There is a massive amount of water, held back by a dam.
And this dam has one release point, a small aperture through which all this body
of water is trying to escape. When looking at it this way, we can understand how
the resulting behaviour, the manifest content, is a compromise between all the
elements “rushingto escape through the little apertureof the dam”.
Some everyday examples are dreams, neurotic symptoms and slips of the
tongue. The notion is that in each of these regular day behaviour, they are all
indicators of what our conscious mind will allow us to experience.
Dream Work
Dreams are a very interesting example of this kind of compromise formation.
Freud is widely known, and often stereotyped, for his interest in dreams. He did
say that “dreams are the royal road to the unconscious.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 19 Parapraxes Freudian slips of the tongue Freud was introduced at the beginning of the course to illustrate an example of a personality theory. Although the Freudian view is now obsolete, it offered a structural, detailed, unifying theory of personality behaviour and development. From a structural view, he distinguished between 3 levels of the psyche: Id, Ego, Superego. He also made a dynamical distinction between the conscious self, the preconscious and the unconscious mind. There are some tensions between these levels, as anxiety provokes thoughts and urges, and then these become repressed into the unconscious. From a developmental view, Freud defined the oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital phases, each involving the organization of the libido around a particular erogenous zone. Classic personality theory tried to explain all the personality differences and commonalities, while contemporary personality theory tends to be much more limited in scope. Freud left a legacy that deserves respect he introduced the talking cure as an extension of his theorizing about personality. Psychotherapy has demonstrated its efficacy in treating a wide range of conditions. Even though most clinical psychologists are now not trained in psychotherapy, every good clinician incorporates into hisher experience a good chunk of Freudian thinking, particularly, the importance of early childhood development and attachment experiences, the fact that people come to therapy when they are at their most desperate, and that even thought they come to therapy wholeheartedly wanting your help, their unconscious mind will do everything possible to undermine the therapeutic process. Basic instincts that underlie human behaviour, in Freuds view are sex and aggression. Everything we do is an unconscious manifestation of either sex (LibidoEros) or aggression (Phanitose). The idea of defence mechanisms is essential to Freudian thought. Repression (that which is intolerable to the self, we simply push out of awareness) is the first line of defence, but when it fails, theres a whole suite of secondary mechanisms www.notesolution.com
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