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Final

Thorough notes on Final Lecture (21)

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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PSYB30 PersonalityMonday, April 4/2011
Lecture 21 – Conclusion
Exam Format
50 questions
Need to read both Lecture and Textbook cuz there will be textbook questions on content that
wasn't in lecture, same goes for lecture questions.
Personality Defined
He gives us the definition now because in the beginning we'd have a lesser understanding of what it
means.
Personality is an individual's unique variation on the general evolutionary design for human
nature, expressed as a developing pattern of dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations, and
integrative life stories complexly and differentially situated in culture. (McAdams & Pals, 2006)
All of these 3 levels, (traits, adaptations, & life-stories) rests upon an evolutionary
foundation
Each of us though represents a unique variation on this basic psychological design
Although there is a human nature we all share, all of us depart from this basic nature in
some ways
Dimensions of Human Existence
If we look at the world from a distance, we'll see the world as blue (from the ocean) and green (the
land). The same goes for personality psychology. When you take a step back, for all the many
constructs and theories we've talked about, everything can be kind of reduced to these two basic themes
identified by David Bakn:
These two aspects characterize much of human behaviour
Agency
This aspect is captured by our propensities towards enhancing and protecting ourselves
Focus on the self
Formation of separations
Striving for expansion and elevation of self
Communion
At the same time we are fundamentally a social species. We participate in families,
relationships, etc
Focus on others
Formation of connections
Striving for contact and congregation with others
Bakn believes that these two things summarize much of what it means to be human.
By capturing the agentic and communal, we cover a lot of ground with what it means when
we speak of the human condition
www.notesolution.com
Human Evolution
We are products of the evolutionary process
The Attachment System
eg:If separated from a caregiver, then protest
Safety & proximity maintenance
we need to feel distress when separated from mother in order to survive
(communion)
The Social Rank System
eg:If threatened by a superior, then we submit
Recognition & use of power
Knowing power differences between ourselves and others is beneficial to our
survival
(agency)
Gender, Society, & Culture
We are products of socialization processes
Femininity – Nurturance & Cooperation
The product of sex-segregated play (“tea parties)
Perpetuated by home-maker roles
As little girls it seems like the games you play and how you're brought up prepares
you for your future home-maker role
(communion)
Masculinity – Dominance & Competition
The product of sex-segregated play (“war games)
Perpetuated by wage-earner roles
Masculinity is formed in childhood from the games boys play in which cultivates the
dominant traits that are stereotypic of men as they grow up and turn into wage-
earners.
(agency)
So even though there is this difference between the thinking of evolutionary theorists and social
learning theorists, both their theories incorporate the ideas of agency and communion
Level I: Personality Traits
Digman (1997) re-analyzed the correlation matrices from 14 studies supporting the five-factor
model. Two higher-order factors emerged:
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSYB30 Personality Monday, April 42011 Lecture 21 Conclusion Exam Format 50 questions Need to read both Lecture and Textbook cuz there will be textbook questions on content that wasnt in lecture, same goes for lecture questions. Personality Defined He gives us the definition now because in the beginning wed have a lesser understanding of what it means. Personality is an individuals unique variation on the general evolutionary design for human nature, expressed as a developing pattern of dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations, and integrative life stories complexly and differentially situated in culture. (McAdams & Pals, 2006) All of these 3 levels, (traits, adaptations, & life-stories) rests upon an evolutionary foundation Each of us though represents a unique variation on this basic psychological design Although there is a human nature we all share, all of us depart from this basic nature in some ways Dimensions of Human Existence If we look at the world from a distance, well see the world as blue (from the ocean) and green (the land). The same goes for personality psychology. When you take a step back, for all the many constructs and theories weve talked about, everything can be kind of reduced to these two basic themes identified by David Bakn: These two aspects characterize much of human behaviour Agency This aspect is captured by our propensities towards enhancing and protecting ourselves Focus on the self Formation of separations Striving for expansion and elevation of self Communion At the same time we are fundamentally a social species. We participate in families, relationships, etc Focus on others Formation of connections Striving for contact and congregation with others Bakn believes that these two things summarize much of what it means to be human. By capturing the agentic and communal, we cover a lot of ground with what it means when we speak of the human condition www.notesolution.com
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