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Final

Lecture 20 - Detailed notes for the final

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Lecture 20
Safeguarding Strategies distinctive in the lives of neurotic people
Adler thought that the feelings of inferiority were universal there is something
that makes everyone feel inferior, and then the compensatory behaviours arise to
“fix” them.
This tension between the feeling of inferiority and superiority is at the heart of
neurotic behaviour, in Adler’s view.
Neurotic individuals are therefore expected to be extremely self-absorbed and
self-preoccupied, because they have to constantly attend to their feelings of
inferiority. The expectation than is that the neurotic individual has a much deeper
rooted sense of inferiority.
Fortunately, we have at our disposal a wide range of strategies with which to
safeguard or protect our sense of self- esteem or security: Rationalizing
Strategies, Aggressive Strategies and Distancing Strategies.
Rationalizing Strategies refer to the tactical use of ones own symptoms to
explain why one cant face up to various life challenges/demands. The neurotic
individual excuses him/herself from the challenges of life by the tactical use of
their symptoms.
Aggressive Strategies refer to devaluating others in comparison to oneself,
blaming others for ones own felt sense of inferiority or blaming ones self in order
to attract attention or sympathy from others.
Distancing Strategies refer to the restriction of ones participation in life,
therefore limiting the opportunities one has to fail.
These are the strategies that are the hallmark of the neurotic functioning
personality and all of these strategies would represent non-aggressive ways of
keeping lifes challenges at a safe distance, where they cannot be harmful.
Earliest Memories & Style of Life
www.notesolution.com
All of us have to interpret our inferiority and develop some way of coping with or
overcoming that feeling. This idea that all of us are negotiating a relationship
between our feelings of inferiority and the ways in which we handle them is what
Adler called a Style of Life.
Style of Life - the characteristic way in which we strive to handle, cope with, and
overcome the things we feel inferior about. This is not specific to the neurotic
person, its universal all of us have a style of life.
Adler had the belief that in getting to know someone, the way in which to become
acquainted with a particular individuals style of life, is to ask them about their first
memories.
Earliest life memories are meant to be revealing of this basic life attitude that we
acquire. They are significant not just because they are the first things we
remember, but also because of their meaning. They connote the style in which
we handle our sense of inferiority. It doesnt matter if the memory is real or not, if
its mostly fiction or factual truth. What matters is that when asked “What is the
earliest memory you have?this is the thing that you say. Within the style of life
that you have fashioned for yourself, this is the earliest memory that resonates
with that style of life.
Summary of Part 2
Adlers greatest contribution was the idea of the “inferiority complex”—the
early sense of powerlessness that in later life gives rise to compensatory
strivings for superiority
Adler later came to recognize that individuals also have an innate social
interest—a sense of kinship and fellowship with all humanity
Carl Gustav Jung (1875 1961)
Carl Jung (1875 1961) was also a student of Sigmund Freud, the most
prominent one to top it off. He was at one point Freuds heir-apparent, the hand
www.notesolution.com
chosen successor that Freud imagined would take his place as the head of
psychoanalysis, until they had a “parting of ways”.
Ultimately Jung broke away from Freud, and developed his own theory of
personality and psychotherapy and introduced key ideas that distinguished him
from the others.
Jung had a wonderful way of showing how science and faith can meet. He
provided a formulation of the divine, where divinity is simply and archetype that
was a part of the human experience.
Central Attitudes
From a structural point of view, Jung believed that everyone adopts a Central
Attitude towards himself and the world, either of introversion, or of extroversion.
Introversion, in Jungs view, is characterised by a hesitant, reflective, retiring
nature that keeps to itself, shrinks from objects, is always slightly on the
defensive and prefers primarily to be hidden. Basic attitude where one is
primarily oriented towards itself and away from the outside world focused
internally.
Extroversion, in Jungs view, is characterized by an orientation towards the
external world (turned outward), an outgoing, kindred and accommodating nature
that adapts easily to a given situation, quickly forms attachments, and will often
venture forth with careless confidence into unknown situations.
Jung viewed these as personality types.
The Four Functions
In addition to the attitude adopted towards the world, the mind has a series of
specific functions that mediate our interaction with the external world. And for
each individual, one of these functions will be more prominent than the others.
Therefore, a second kind of individual difference is which of the 4 functions does
one rely on more so than the others. The four functions are:
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Description
Lecture 20 Safeguarding Strategies distinctive in the lives of neurotic people Adler thought that the feelings of inferiority were universal there is something that makes everyone feel inferior, and then the compensatory behaviours arise to fix them. This tension between the feeling of inferiority and superiority is at the heart of neurotic behaviour, in Adlers view. Neurotic individuals are therefore expected to be extremely self-absorbed and self-preoccupied, because they have to constantly attend to their feelings of inferiority. The expectation than is that the neurotic individual has a much deeper rooted sense of inferiority. Fortunately, we have at our disposal a wide range of strategies with which to safeguard or protect our sense of self- esteem or security: Rationalizing Strategies, Aggressive Strategies and Distancing Strategies. Rationalizing Strategies refer to the tactical use of ones own symptoms to explain why one cant face up to various life challengesdemands. The neurotic individual excuses himherself from the challenges of life by the tactical use of their symptoms. Aggressive Strategies refer to devaluating others in comparison to oneself, blaming others for ones own felt sense of inferiority or blaming ones self in order to attract attention or sympathy from others. Distancing Strategies refer to the restriction of ones participation in life, therefore limiting the opportunities one has to fail. These are the strategies that are the hallmark of the neurotic functioning personality and all of these strategies would represent non-aggressive ways of keeping lifes challenges at a safe distance, where they cannot be harmful. Earliest Memories & Style of Life www.notesolution.com
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