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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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PSYB30Monday, February 28
Lecture 12
Goals and Strivings
-this is the second half of the course
-for the next several weeks, we will attempt to fill in the details
-we will acknowledge the limitations to traits
-will be discussing the stylistic ways in which they adapt to their environments
-will be discussing a new domain of concepts; characteristics adaptations
-how we adapt to out environment
-motivational constructs, cognitive constructs, and developmental constructs
McClelland
-the advisor of McAdams
-pioneered the study of several motivations; what he called needs
-he introduced the idea of implicit motives; that were outside of our conscious
awareness
-motives are like a lens; a way of filtering ones experience into the kinds of qualities that
are relevant to you
-the motivational preferences that ppl have will influence the way in which they view the
world
-motives are different from traits
-traits refer to the question of what; what behavs do ppl show, what though do ppl
typically have? etc.
-motivational constructs reference questions that begin with why
-why does someone do what they have?
-this is us seeking the underlying motivation for their behav.s
-motive and conscious intention; some motives are aware to us and we have access to
them
-McClelland felt that there were certain motivations that were only partly accessible to
consciousness, that lie outside of conscious awareness
-we should not equate motivation with conscious intention; and most of what motivates
us in intentions that we are not consciously aware of
-this creates a conundrum methodologically; how do you measure something that ppl
are not aware of?
-this means you cannot use self-report, so how do we get access to those
implicit/unconscious motivations?
-his strategy was to make use of a method first introduced by Henry Murray decades
earlier; known as the TAT
-consists of a standardized sequence of cards; the cards depict pictures
www.notesolution.com
-the participant is instructed to look at the picture and write a story about what is going
on in the picture; write a story in response to a series of pictures, and the pictures are
standardized, so all participants see the same pictures in the same order
-the notion here is that the pictures themselves do not have fixed stories, they do not tell
you what story to write, they are ambiguous, so you must make the story up on your
own
-whatever you see in the cards is not intrinsic to the cards, rather it in intrinsic to you
-if you see the person in the picture as motivated by an overarching concern, you must
be creating that concern for the person
-the characters are presumably acting out the underlying hopes/fears/wishes etc. we
have either consciously of unconsciously
-the story you write will reflect motivational concerns that are your motivational concerns
b/c the cards themselves have no motivational content
-when presented with a TAT card you as a participant must project your own issues
onto the card to make sense of them, and for this reason they have became known as
the projective test
-achievement motive; the need for achievement
-believed this need was an implicit motivation, meaning that we are only partly aware of
it, so we need to rely on measure of implicit constructs, in order to access them
-how do you use the TAT to measure achievement motivation?
-you need a scoring system, and set of instructions that you can take as the
experimentalist and code the stories that a person has written with themes related to
achievement
-how do you create the scoring system?
-begin with a hypothesis; about the kinds of conditions under which a particular motive
might be temp. elevated
-bring in subjects and expose them to a set of conditions that will temporarily raise their
level of achievement motivation
-one group of ppl were brought into the lab and told the test would reveal what their
intelligence and leadership potential is; the presumption was that this group of
participants had aroused within them achievement motivation
-another group of Ps (neutral condition) they took the tests but were told that the tests
would not tell much about the person who was taking them
-what distinguishes the stories btwn the 2 groups?
-are there themes that appear in the groups when compared with the other group?
-by analyzing the 2 sets of stories you can determine which themes become more
apparent when motivation has been temp. aroused
-this identification of themes allows you to build a scoring system
-you rely on many of the diff arousal conditions
-once you have identified the themes, you can then create a scoring system, and in
subsequent research you just need you show Ps the cards, get them to write the
stories, and then apply the scoring system to the stories that they produce
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSYB30 Monday, February 28 Lecture 12 Goals and Strivings -this is the second half of the course -for the next several weeks, we will attempt to fill in the details -we will acknowledge the limitations to traits -will be discussing the stylistic ways in which they adapt to their environments -will be discussing a new domain of concepts; characteristics adaptations -how we adapt to out environment -motivational constructs, cognitive constructs, and developmental constructs McClelland -the advisor of McAdams -pioneered the study of several motivations; what he called needs -he introduced the idea of implicit motives; that were outside of our conscious awareness -motives are like a lens; a way of filtering ones experience into the kinds of qualities that are relevant to you -the motivational preferences that ppl have will influence the way in which they view the world -motives are different from traits -traits refer to the question of what; what behavs do ppl show, what though do ppl typically have? etc. -motivational constructs reference questions that begin with why -why does someone do what they have? -this is us seeking the underlying motivation for their behav.s -motive and conscious intention; some motives are aware to us and we have access to them -McClelland felt that there were certain motivations that were only partly accessible to consciousness, that lie outside of conscious awareness -we should not equate motivation with conscious intention; and most of what motivates us in intentions that we are not consciously aware of -this creates a conundrum methodologically; how do you measure something that ppl are not aware of? -this means you cannot use self-report, so how do we get access to those implicitunconscious motivations? -his strategy was to make use of a method first introduced by Henry Murray decades earlier; known as the TAT -consists of a standardized sequence of cards; the cards depict pictures www.notesolution.com
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