Study Guides (400,000)
CA (150,000)
UTSC (10,000)
Psychology (2,000)
PSYB32H3 (200)


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Konstantine Zakzanis
Study Guide

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What is Abnormal Behaviour?
Psychopathology: the field concerned with abnormal behaviour, thoughts and feelings
The study is a search for why people behave, think, and feel in unexpected, sometime bizarre, and
typically self-defeating ways
Abnormal behaviour: several characteristics including statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal
distress, disability of dysfunction, and unexpectedness. Working together they form a defintionto.
Digit Span
Mental sketchpad: a quick capacity to quickly remember something such as a phone number
before you write it down
Digit span: repeating numbers back in the order they were repeated ex. Prof saying number 4571,
you repeat back the numbers. As they increase, it gets harder
Statistical Infrequency
Most people got 7-8 right, the average
A way we find abnormality is statistically infrequency- bell curve
For digit span, most people would get 5-9 +1 on each side
If people get less then 2 correct, its statistical infrequent as most people would get more then 2
If people got 20 correct, its infrequent but its not the best way to define abnormality because its
not fair on both sides because you wouldn’t lock up someone who got 20 right
Abnormal behaviour is infrequent in the general population
Normal curve (bell-shaped curve) places the majority of people for the characteristics in the
middle; very few people fall on either extreme
An assertion that a person is normal implies that they don’t deviate much from the average in a
trait or behaviour pattern
Statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation; low intelligence is a
principle criteria used to diagnose this
When an individuals IQ is below 70, their intellectual functioning is considered sufficiently low to
be designated as mental retardation
The statistical component gives little guidance in determining which infrequent behaviours should
be studied
Violation of norms? Personal distress? Disability or dysfunction? Unexpectedness?
Violation of norms:
Train of thought of abnormality with violation of norms.
Subjectivity in which we excepted certain societal norms
Would be diagnosed with a fetish, something that'll help them complete the sexual
response cycle
Threatens or makes anxious those observing behaviours
Criminals and prostitute's violate social norms but aren't studied; the normal anxious
person usually studied is not violating social norms
Cultural diversity can affect how people view social norms. What's a norm in one culture
maybe considered abnormal in another
Personal distress:
Nick form the case study- is feeling personal distress because he's seeking counselling
Narcissist: someone who loves themselves, does cause personal distress under the surface
Behaviour is abnormal if it creates great distress and torment in the person experiencing it
Though many disorders involve personal suffering, some don’t. ex. A psychopath. They treat
others cold-heartedly and many continually violate the law without experiencing any guilt, remorse, or
Not all types of distress belong to the field ex. Hunger or the pain of childbirth
Disability or dysfunction:
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In a clinical psychology, canvasing a persons symptoms (impairments) ex. Depression, appetite
decrease- when those symptoms result in disability, it's significant
Have to think about the context, the individual context, to if it’s a disability ex. Losing pinky would
be disability for pianist but not a professor giving lectures
Disability: impairment in some important area of life (ex. relationships) because of an abnormality
or because it’s a component in abnormal behaviour
Substance-use disorders, created by substance abuse or addiction, are defined in part by the
social or occupational disability (ex. Poor work performance)
A phobia can produce both distress and disability ex. A fear of flying may prevent someone form
taking a job promotion
Disability applies to some, but not all, disorders
Ex. Transvestism (cross-dressing for sexual pleasure) is currently diagnosed as a mental
disorder if it distresses the person but its not a disability
Unexpectedness (e.g. ???)
Need to be mindful of the definition when defining abnormality
Have to be mindful of the individual in front of you
Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to
environmental stressors
An anxiety disorder is diagnosed when the anxiety is unexpected and out of proportion to the
situation ex. Someone well-off worrying out their financial situation
“Because the field is continually evolving, it is not possible to offer a simple definition of abnormality that
captures it in its entirety. The characteristics presented constitute a partial definition, but they are not equally applicable
to every diagnosis.” - Davison, Neale, Blankstein, & Flett Abnormal Psychology, Second Canadian Edition
Goering, Wasylenki, and Durbin (2000) estimated that approx. 3,600 practicing psychiatrist, 13,000
psychologist and psychological associates and 11,000 nurses specialize in the mental health area in Canada, along with
thousands of social workers
Psychiatrists (medical doctors) are essentially free to choose the patient population they wish to care for
and how
Analysis of the result of the National Population Health Survey indicated that approx. 2% of respondents
had consulted with a psychologist one or more times in the proceeding 12 months, equivalent to 515,000 people in the
Canadian population 12 and older
Psychological services are vastly underused and psychological services are more available in urban areas
than in rural areas
Granting prescriptive authority to psychologists is opposed by psychiatrists, as well as many psychologists
The Mental Health Professions
Clinical psychologist / neuropsychologist
Ph.D. or Psy.D.
Clinicians: the various professionals authorized to provide psychological services
Clinical psychologists requires a Ph.D. or Psy.D. but it depends on the province in which you live in,
a psychologist many have doctoral or masters degree
Social worker
A social worker obtains an M.S.W (master of social work) degree.
Counseling psychologist
Programs for counselling psychologists are similar to graduate training in clinical psychology but
have less emphasis on research and the more severe form of psychopathology
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Differences between counselling psychology and clinical psychology in Canada: differ in numbers,
22 clinical psychology programs vs 4 counselling psychology programs. Counselling programs only have a masters
degree. Clinical psychology program shave lots of faculty registers as clinical psychologists
Psychiatric nurse: Psychiatric nursing oris the appointed position of a nursing that has specialised in mental
health and cares for people of all ages with mental illness or mental distress, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder,
psychosis, depression, dementia and many more.
A psychiatrist holds an MD degree and has post graduate training, residency
Psychiatrists can also continue functioning as physicians- giving examinations etc.
The primary aspect of medical practice in which the psychiatrist engage is prescribing
psychoactive drugs, chemical compounds that can influence how people feel and think
Psychotherapist: those who address personal difficulties and help pepople overcome problematic
Occupational Therapist
Speech Language Therapist
Difference between psychiatrists and psychologists: psychiatrists engage in psycho formal psychology as
their first form of their treatment. Do clinical interviews. Psychologists methods of treatments can have multi modal and
in some places can give medications. Psychologists spend a lot of time doing assessment and that were the strength lies
In some jurisdictions, 'psychologist' is reserved fro doctoral-level registrants and master-level registrants are
referred to as 'psychological associates'
The 1995 Agreement on Internal Trade stipulated that a framework for mobility had to be developed so
that the credentials of professional psychologists form one art of Canada would be recognized in other parts of Canada
A Mutual Recognition Agreement (signed June 2001) requires a person to obtain five core competencies in
order to become a registered psychologists
Interpersonal relationships
Assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis)
Intervention and consultation
Ethics and standards
Training for a Ph.D in clinical psychology emphasises laboratory work, research design, statistics and the
study of human and animal behaviour and are requires to write a dissertation on a specialized topic
Candidates learn techniques of assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders. They also learn how to
practice psychotherapy (a verbal means of helping troubled individuals change their thought, feelings and behaviour to
reduce distress and to achieve greater life satisfaction)
Psy.D (doctor of psychology) curriculum similar to Ph.D students, with less emphasis on research and more
on clinical training
The Ph.D approach is based on scientist-practitioner model, while the Psy.D approach is based on
a scholar-practitioner model
Scholar-practitioner: flexible, socially responsive, thinking practitioner who derives their skills from core
knowledge in scientific psychology. This trained professional is capable of performing in a number of roles and would not
be trained simple to be a technician in specific areas
A psychoanalyst has received specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute
Program involves several years of clinical training and the in-depth psychoanalysis of the trainee
Can take up to 10 years of graduate work to become a psychoanalyst, there are fewer in modern
In the beginning (what to do with abnormality)
Early demonology
It was all thought to be from the gods above
Cure abnormality by drilling a hole in the head
Demonology: the doctrine that an evil being, such as a devil, may dwell within a person
and control their mind and body
Exorcism: the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture
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