[PSYB32H3] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 287 pages long Study Guide!

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Published on 29 Nov 2016
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Professor
UTSC
PSYB32H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSYB32: Abnormal Psychology Meera Mehta Summer 2012
1 | P a g e
Chapter 1: Introduction—Definitional and Historical Considerations, and
Canada’s Mental Health System
- psychopathology the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behaviour, thoughts, and feelings, or
mental disorders
o when studying abnormal psychology you need to remain objective
the concepts and labels we use in the scientific study of abnormal behaviour must be free of the subjective
feelings of appropriateness ordinarily attached to certain human phenomena
What is Abnormal Behaviour?
- abnormal behaviour patterns of emotion, thought, and action deemed pathological for one or more of the following reasons:
infrequent occurrence, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness
STATISTICAL INFREQUENCY
- one aspect of abnormal behaviour is that it is infrequent in the general population
- normal curve (bell curve) as applied in psychology, the bell-shaped distribution of a measurable trait depicting most people in
the middle and few at the extremes
o an assertion that a person is normal implies that he/she does not deviate much from the average in a particular trait or
behaviour pattern
- statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation
o low intelligence is a principal criterion used to diagnose mental retardation
he a idiidual’s IQ < , his/he itelletual futioig is osideed suffiietl suoal to e
categorized as mental retardation
o only certain infrequent behaviours, such as experiencing hallucinations or deep depressions, fall into the domain of
abnormal psychology
VIOLATION OF NORMS
- We must consider whether the behaviour violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those observing it
- The anti-social behaviour of the psychopath fits the definition, as do the obsessive-opulsie peso’s ople ituals ad the
pshoti patiet’s oersation with imaginary voices
- Violation of norms explicitly makes abnormality a relative concept; various forms of unusual behaviour can be tolerated,
depending on the prevailing cultural norms
o Criminals and prostitutes, for example, violate social norms but are not usually studied within the domain of abnormal
psychology, and the highly anxious person, who is generally regarded as a central character in the field of abnormal
psychology, typically does not violate social norms and would not be bothersome to many lay observes
o Also, cultural diversity can affect how people view social norms; what is the norm in one culture may be abnormal in
another
PERSONAL DISTRESS
- Another characteristic is personal suffering; that is, behaviour is abnormal if it creates great distress and torment in the person
experiencing it
- People experiencing anxiety disorders and depression truly suffer greatly, but some disorders do not necessarily involve
distress.
o The psychopath, for example, treats others cold-heartedly and many continually violate the law without experiencing
any guilt, remorse, or anxiety whatsoever
o Not all forms of distress hunger or the pain of childbirth belong to the field
DISABILITY OR DYSFUNCTION
- Disability impairment in some important area of life (eg: work or personal relationships) because of an abnormality can also be
a component of abnormal behaviour
- Substance-use disorders are also defined in part by the social or occupational disability (eg: poor work performance, serious
aguets ith oe’s spouse created by substance abuse
- A phobia can produce both distress and disability; for example, a severe fear of flying may prevent someone from taking a job
promotion
- Disability applies to some, but not all disorders
o Example: transvestism, which is currently diagnosed as a mental disorder if it distresses the person, is not necessarily a
disability
UNEXPECTEDNESS
- Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to environmental stressors
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PSYB32: Abnormal Psychology Meera Mehta Summer 2012
2 | P a g e
o For example, an anxiety disorder is diagnosed when the anxiety is unexpected and out of proportion to the situation, as
when a person who is well off worries constantly about his/her financial situation
o Hunger, on the other hand, is an expected response to not eating and would thus be excluded as a state of distress that
is relevant to abnormal behaviour
Focus on Discovery 1.1 The Mental Health Professions
- about 3,600 practicing psychiatrists, about 13,000 psychologists and psychological associates, and about 11,000 nurses
specialize in the mental health area in Canada
- clinicians a health professional authorized to provide services to people suffering from one or more pathologies
- clinical psychologist/ clinical neuropsychologist an individual who has earned a Ph.D degree in psychology or an Psy.D and
whose training has included an internship in a mental hospital or clinic
o The 1995 Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT) stipulated that a framework for mobility had to be developed so that the
credentials of professional psychologists would be recognized across Canada
o A Mutual Recognition Agreement was signed in 2001
According to Gauthier, a person must obtain 5 core competencies to become a registered psychologist:
Interpersonal relationships; assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis); intervention and
consultation; research; and ethics and standards
o Training for a PhD in clinical psychology requires a heavy emphasis on lab work, research design, stats, and empirically
based study of human and animal behaviour
The PhD is a research degree, and candidates have to research and write a dissertation on a specialized topic
o Candidates in clinical psychology learn skills in two more areas, which distinguish them from other PhD candidates in
psychology:
Learn techniques of assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders
Learn how to practice psychotherapy a primarily verbal means of helping troubled individuals change their
thoughts, feelings, and behaviour to reduce distress and to achieve greater life satisfaction
o There is also a relatively new degree called the Psy.D. (doctor of psychology) which puts less emphasis on research and
more emphasis on clinical training than the Ph.D.
- psychiatrist a physician (M.D.) who has taken specialized postdoctoral training, called a residency, in the diagnosis, treatment,
and prevention of mental disorders
o most often, the primary aspect of medical practice in which psychiatrists engage is prescribing psychoactive drugs
psychoactive drugs chemical compounds having a psychological effect that alters mood or thought process;
eg: valium
- psychoanalyst a therapist who has taken specialized postdoctoral training in psychoanalysis after earning an M.D. or a Ph.D.
degree
- social worker a mental health professional who holds a master of social work (M.S.W.) degree
- counseling psychologists a doctoral-level mental health professional whose training is similar to that of a clinical psychologist,
though usually with less emphasis on research and serious psychopathology
- psychiatric nurse a nurse who has obtained additional training in the mental health field
History of Psychopathology
- before the age of scientific inquiry, all good and bad manifestations of power beyond the control of humankind were regarded
as supernatural
- many early philosophers, theologians, and physicians who studied the troubled mind believed that deviancy reflected the
displeasure of the gods or possession by demons
EARLY DEMONOLOGY
- the doctrine that an evil being, such as the devil, may dwell within a person and control his/her mind and body is called
demonology
- demonology the dotie that a peso’s aoal ehaiour is caused by an autonomous evil spirit
- following from the belief that abnormal behaviour was caused by possession, its treatment often involved exorcism
- exorcism the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture
o exorcism typically took the form of elaborate rites of prayer, noisemaking, forcing the afflicted to drink terrible-tasting
brews, and, on occasion, more extreme measures, such as flogging (beating) and starvation, to render the body
uninhabitable to devils
- trepanning (trephining) the act of making a surgical opening in a living skull; this act was sometimes performed because of the
belief that it would allow evil spirits to leave the body
o one popular theory is that it was a way of treating conditions such as epilepsy, headaches, and psychological disorders
attributed to demons within the cranium
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