PSYB32H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Transvestic Fetishism, Paraphilia, Plastic Surgery

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Published on 22 Jul 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Chapter 14 Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER
Characteristics of Gender Identity Disorder
Gender identity disorder (GID) sometimes referred to as transsexualism, feel deep within themselves,
usually from early childhood, that they are of the opposite sex
They have an aversion to same-sex clothing and activities
A man can look at himself in a mirror, see the body of a biological man, and yet personally experience
that body as belonging to a woman. He may try to pass as a member of the opposite sex and may even
want to have his body surgically altered
Majority of GID cases are diagnosed as GIDNOS (gender identity disorder not otherwise specified).
That is, the person has symptoms that meet much of the description of GID, but there are some unique
features that do not fie the precise criteria of GID
When GID begins in childhood, it is associated with cross gender behaviours, such as dressing in
opposite-sex clothes
GID is associated with a developmental lag in achieving a sense of gender constancy or stability (ie,
acceptance that one is a boy or girl for life)
GID in a child is usually recognized by parents when the child is between two and four ears old
GID is about 6.6 times more frequent in boys than in girls
Social factors partly account for the difference in referral rates; cross-gender behaviour is less tolerated
when exhibited by boys and a higher threshold has to be met in order for a girl to be referred
Factors associated with the decision to seek a clinical assessment includes:
1.A belief that the behaviour was no longer a phase that the child would grow out of
2.A threshold violation (wanting to cross-dress not only at home)
3.Belief that the child was experiencing intense distress about being a boy or a girl
4.Concerns about potential or actual rejection by peers
Poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of behaviour problems
Most children with GID do not grow up to be disordered in adulthood, even without professional
intervention; however, many demonstrate a homosexual orientation
Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children helps identify children who fir GID diagnostic criteria
Excluded from GID are people with schizophrenia who on very rare occasions claims to be of the other
sex, as well as hermaphrodites, so called intersexed individuals, who have both make and female
reproductive organs
Those with GID often arouse the disapproval of others and experience discrimination in employment
when they choose to cross-dress
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Cross-dressing is less of a problem for women with GID because contemporary fashion allow women to
wear clothing similar to what worn by men
People with GID often experience anxiety and depression
GID in childhood is linked with separation anxiety disorder
Causes of Gender Identity Disorder
Children who experience a sense of inappropriateness in the culturally prescribed gender role of their
sex but who do not experience discomfort with their biological sex should not be considered to have
GID
Suggest that GID in children should be removed from the DSM. Viewing GID as a mental disorder may
contribute to a labelling process that stigmatizes those children with GID who go on to develop
homosexuality
Evidence indicates that gender identity is influenced by hormones
Offspring of mothers who have taken sex hormones during pregnancy frequently behave like members
of the opposite sex and have anatomical abnormalities
Although such children were not necessarily abnormal in their gender identity, the mothers’ ingestion
of prenatal sex hormones did apparently give them higher than usual levels of cross-gender interest
and behaviour
Many people with GID use sex hormones in an effort to alter their bodies according to their wishes
Boys with GID have been rated as more attractive than control children, and girls with GID as less
attractive
Male patients with GID report having has a distant relationship with their fathers; female often report
a history of physical or sexual abuse
GID is far less prevalent than would be indicated by the numbers of boys who play with dolls and girls
who engage in contact sports
Therapies for Gender Identity Disorder
Body Alterations
A person with GID who enters a program that entails alteration of the body is generally
required to undergo 6 to 12 months of psychotherapy
Therapy typically focuses not only on the anxiety and depression, but also on available options
for altering his or her body
Some people with GID may choose to have only cosmetic surgery; many transsexuals also take
hormones to bring their bodies physically closer to their beliefs about their gender
Many people with GID go no further than using such methods, but some take the next step of
having sex-reassignment surgery
Sex-reassignment surgery an operation in which the existing genitalia are altered to make them
more like those of the opposite sex
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The first sex-reassignment surgery took place in Europe in 1930, but the surgery that
attracted worldwide attention was performed on an ex-soldier
Sex-reassignment surgery is an option much more frequently exercised by men than by women
A review of 20 years of research showed an overall improvement in social adaptation rates
because of the surgery, with female-to-male transsexuals having greater success than male-to-
female transsexuals
Preoperative factors that seemed to predict favourable post-surgery adjustment were:
1.Reasonable emotional stability
2.Successful adaptation in the new role for at least one year before the surgery
3.Adequate understanding of the actual limitations and consequences of the surgery
4.Psychotherapy in the context of an established gender identity program
People who undergo these procedures often cut their ties to former friends and family members
and to many aspects of their previous lives
A person who has sex-reassignment surgery confronts challenges few other have occasion to
face, and this adjustment may well have to be made without the social support of family and
friends
Alterations of Gender Identity
Some apparently successful procedures for altering gender identity through behaviour therapy
have been reported
Treatment involve shaping various specific behaviours, such as mannerisms and interpersonal
behaviour, also included attention to cognitive components, such as fantasies
Sexual arousal might be transferred, or classically conditioned
The positive approach to changing the arousal properties of images and fantasies was
complemented by aversion therapy to reduce the attractiveness of men
Most transsexuals refuse such treatment. For them, physically altering their bodies is the only
legitimate goal
THE PARAPHILIAS
Paraphilias a group of disorders involving sexual attraction to unusual objects or sexual activities that are
unusual in nature. A deviation (para) in what the person is attracted to (philia)
The fantasies, urges or behaviours must last at least 6 months and causes significant distress of
impairment
A person can have the behaviours, fantasies, and urges that a person with a paraphilia has but not be
diagnosed with paraphilia if the fantasies or behaviours are not recurrent or not markedly
distressed by them
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Document Summary

Chapter 14 sexual and gender identity disorders. Gender identity disorder (gid) sometimes referred to as transsexualism, feel deep within themselves, usually from early childhood, that they are of the opposite sex. They have an aversion to same-sex clothing and activities: a man can look at himself in a mir ror, see the body of a biological man, and yet personally experience that body as belonging to a woman. He may t ry to pass as a member of the opposite sex and may even want to have his body surgically altered: majority of gid cases are diagnosed as gidnos (gender identity disorder not otherwise specified). Causes of gender identity disorder: children who experience a sense of inappropriateness in the culturally prescribed gender role of their sex but who do not experience discomfort with their biological sex should not be considered to have. Gid: suggest that gid in children should be removed from the dsm.