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Study Guide

PSYB32H3- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 27 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
PSYB32H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PSYB32 Lecture 1: Chapter 1: Introduction, Definitional and Historical Considerations
What is Abnormal Psychology?
because the field is continually evolving, it is not possible to offer a simple
definition of abnormality that captures it in its entirety. The characteristics
presented constitute a partial definition, but they are not equally applicable to
every diagnosis” – Davison, Neale, Blankstein, & Flett
Includes various characteristics:
o Statistical Infrequency: it is infrequent to the general population, most lie
within the middle of the curve it is explicitly used in diagnosing mental
retardation
o Violation of Norms
o Disability/Dysfunction: impairment in some important area of life because
of an abnormality (i.e. substance abuse, phobia)
o Unexpectedness: distress and disability are considered abnormal when
they are unexpected responses to environmental stressors
Includes various professions:
o Clinical Psychologist/Neuropsychologist: Ph.D, Psy.D
o Psychiatrist and Neurologist: MD can give prescriptions
o Social Worker
o Counseling Psychologist
o Psychiatric Nurse
o Psychotherapist
o Occupational therapist
o Speech language therapist
History of Psychopathology
Psychopathology: the field concerned with the nature and development of
abnormal behaviour, thoughts, and feelings
Demonology: an evil being lives within a person
o Could be treated by an exorcism or trepanning of the skulls
o Witchcraft was suspected if a person was mentally ill persecuted by
drowning
Somatogenesis: something is wrong with the soma, or physical body that
disturbs thought and action
o Psychogenesis: in contrast, a disturbance has psychological origins
o Hippocrates classified mental disorders into three categories: mania,
melancholia, phrenitis (brain fever)
Franz Joseph Gall: originator of what later became phrenology (maps of the
brain) said brain related to behaviour
Patients with psychological disorders were abundant in asylums, but were
deemed lunatics, insance, incurable
o Paul Broca observed lunatics in the asylum. In his research he realized
that patients who couldn’t talk, but understood had a lesion in their left
inferior frontal lobe
o Karl Wernicke observed patients who could talk, but couldn’t understand
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John Harlow’s research on “Gage” a worker who was dependable and smart,
whom became ill-mannered liar showed that he would be fine, but had damage
to the frontal lobe
Biological Approach to Abnormal Psychology
Use of MRIs become more evident in tracking what is happening in the brain
With the introduction of psychopharmacology, many patients were
deinstitutionalized
This still did not help in fully understanding abnormal psychology, it is best
understood by a multidisciplinary approach
Healthcare in Canada
The mental health system in Canada is closely tied to medicare: the universal
health care system
o There is an increased focused on and funding for community-based
interventions and prevention programs
o Mental health as important in Canada’s healthcare system should include
adding a number of home care services and some drug treatments
o Deinstitutionalization and decreased government support have
complicated the mental health problems experienced by certain homeless
people
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