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PSYB32H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Longitudinal Study, Alexithymia, Libido

Course Code
Konstantine Zakzanis
Study Guide

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PSYB32 Textbook Notes I
Chapter 1: Introduction
Psychopathology ± the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behaviour, thoughts
and feelings
What is Abnormal Behaviour?
Abnormal behaviour ± includes such characteristics as statistically infrequency, violation of norms,
personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness
- Statistical Infrequency ± abnormal behaviour is infrequent
o Normal Curve ± or bell-shaped curve, very few people fall at either extreme
o Ex: Diagnosing mental retardation through IQ measures. Below 70.
o Ex: Having great athletic ability, is abnormal but not bad
- Violation of Norms ± violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those observing it, can
be culturally bound
o Ex: anti-social behaviour of psychopaths, OCD person, hearing voices
o Ex: criminal and prostitutes, are not studied under psychopathology
- Personal Distress ± personal suffering, behaviour that is abnormal if it creates great distress and
torment in the person experiencing it
o Ex: psychopath, pain from childbirth
- Disability ± impairment in some import area of life (work or personal relationships) because of an
o Ex: substance-use disorders, phobia, transvestism
- Unexpectedness ± distress and disability are considers abnormal when they are unexpected
responses to environmental stressors
The Mental Health Professions
Clinicians ± the various professionals authorised to provide psychological services
- Clinical psychologist ± requires a Ph.D or Psy.D. degree (4-7 years graduate study)
o ³3V\FKRORJLVW´± reserved for doctoral-level registrants
1) Interpersonal relationships
2) Assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis)
3) Intervention and consultation
4) Research
5) Ethics and standards
Ph.D. in psychology ± laboratory work, research design, statistics, and empirically based study of human
and animal behaviour
Ph.D. in clinical psychology additional to the above:
- techniques of assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders ± they learn skills necessary to
- practise psychotherapy ± a primarily verbal means of helping troubled individuals change their
thoughts, feelings, and behaviour to reduce distress and for greater life satisfaction
Ph.D ± more emphasis on research, scientist-practitioner model
Psy. D. ± more emphasis on clinical training, scholar-practitioner model
- scholar-practitioner model ± ³flexible, socially responsible, thinking practitioner who derives his
skills from core knowledge in scientific psychology. This comprehensively trained professional is
capable of performing in a number of roles, and would not be trained simply to be a technician in
specific areas´ ± CPA
Psychiatrist ± MD degree and has had postgraduate training, called a residency, in which he has received
supervision in the practice of diagnosis and psychotherapy

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- continue to function as physicians, giving physical exams, diagnosing medical problems,
prescribing of psychoactive drugs (chemical compounds that can influence how people feel and
Psychoanalyst ± received specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute (Freud)
- several years of clinical training, in-depth psychoanalysis of the trainee
- only recently need MD and psychiatric residency (take up to 10 years of graduate work)
Social worker ± MSW (master of social work)
- counselling psychologists ± similar to graduate training in clinical psychology but less emphasis
on research and the more severe forms of psychopathology
- psychiatric nurse ± specializes in working in the mental health field
History of Psychopathology
Early Demonology
Demonology ± devil dwells within a person and controls his mind and body
- exorcism ± the casting out of spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture
- trepanning ± of skulls (the making of surgical opening in a living skull by some instrument), by
Stone Age or Neolithic cave dwellers was quite widespread
Somatogenesis ± the notion that something wrong with the soma disturbs thought and action
- Hippocrates ± classified mental disorders: mania, melancholia, and phrenitis (brain fever)
o Melancholia ± tranquility, sobriety in choosing food and drink, and abstinence
o Normal brain functions as a balance of four humours: blood(changeable temperament),
black bile (melancholia), yellow bile (irritability and anxiousness), phlegm (if one was
sluggish and dull)
Psycho-genesis ± belief that a disturbance has psychological origins
The Dark Ages and Demonology
- Death of Galen (130-200 AD) marked the dark ages for western European medicine
- Churches gained influence, monks treated the ill instead of physicians
- Persecution of Witches - Pope Innocent VIII, Malleus Maleficarum (witches hammer) to guide
- Witchcraft and Mental Illness ± England were torture was not allowed did not have these
confessions and were actually people who had delusions and hallucinations
mentally impaired
Development of Asylums
- 15-16th century, confinement of the mentally ill, leprosariums converted to asylums, beggars and
mentally ill
- Bethlehem and other early asylums ± 1243, hospital devoted solely to confine mentally ill
o Bedlam - a contraction and popular name for this hospital, became a descriptive term for
a place or scene of wild uproar and confusion, became a tourist attraction
- Moral Treatment ± Pinel+Tuke ± patients had close contact with the attendants, who talked and
read to them and encouraged them to engage in purposeful activity, residents led as normal lives
as possible and in general took responsibility for themselves with the constraints of their disorders
o Philippe Pinel La Bicetre ± movement for humanitarian treatment of mentally ill
o First, drugs used ± alcohol, cannabis, opium and chloral hydrate(knockout drops)
o Second, outcomes were not very favourable, less than 1/3 improved
Asylums in Canada
- Dorothea Dix ± a crusader for improved conditions for people with mental illness
- Henry Hunt Stabb ± tried to institute moral treatment and non-restraint at Lunatic Asylum in St
Johns, Newfoundland
2 distinctive trends in history of development of institutions
1) With the advent of asylums, provisions for the mentally ill were separate from provisions for
the psychically ill, indigents and criminals

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2) The process was segregated from the wider community
- Provincial Psychiatric Hospitals ± patients kept in protective environment, receive little individual
psychosocial treatment, their existence is monotonous and sedentary, removed from major
metropolitan centres, comparable to US private hospitals
- Community Treatment Orders (CTO) ± a legal tool issued by a medical practitioner that
establishes the conditions which a mentally ill person may live in the community, including
compliance with treatment
The Beginning of Contemporary Thought
- An Early Classification - Sydenham, Griesinger
o .UDHSHOLVV\QGURPH- group of certain symptoms that appear together regularly enough
to be regarded as having an underlying physical cause
- General Paresis and Syphilis
o Syphilis ± a venereal disease, sexually transmitted
o General Paresis - steady deterioration in physical and mental, delusions and paralysis,
earlier had syphilis
o Germ theory of disease ± Louis Pasteur ± disease caused by microorganisms
- Psychogenesis
o Hysterical states, physical incapabilities, blindness or paralysis
o Franz Anton Mesmer ± first mesmerize/hypnosis
o Jean Charcot ± hysteric states, non-physiological interpretations
o Josef Breuer ± hypnosis treatment of Anna O, cathartic method (experience of reliving
an earlier emotional catastrophe and releasing the emotional tension caused by
suppressed thoughts about the event)
Medicare ± since 1970, accessible, comprehensive, portable, public admin, universal
Mental Health of Canadians: First View
- National Population Health Survey (NPHS) Stephens et al. found that current stress, social
support, life events, education and childhood trauma were strongly and independently associated
with multiple indicators of both positive (ex: self esteem, mastery, and happiness) and negative
(ex: level of distress, cognitive impairment) Mental Health Status
- Deinstitutionalization ± psychiatric bed reduction and closure
o Include homelessness and a lack of supported housing, the jailing of mentally ill, the
failure to achieve an ideal of community-focused care for people with mental disorders, a
lack of home care, etc.
- Evidence-based treatment (psychological practice) ± treatments that can be supported by
controlled data
ZDLWLQJPRGH´, focus on prevention
The Future
- The Romanow Report ± the mandate was to engage Canadians in a national dialogue and to
assess options for a long-term, sustainable, universally accessible, publicly funded health care
system (weakness: a fragmented constituency, a lack of comprehensive national plan)
- Kirby Report ± transform mental health system, creation of
o Canadian Mental Health Commission - non-SURILWDWDUPVOHQJWKIURPJRYWFHQWUDO
focus on those living with mental health disorders
o and Mental Health Transition Fund ± DOORZIHGJRYWWRPDNHDWLPH-limited (10yrs)
investment to cover transition costs and to speed the process of developing a community
based system of mental health service delivery
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