Psychopathology the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behaviour, thoughts and feelings. Abnormal behaviour includes such characteristics as statistically infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness. Statistical infrequency abnormal behaviour is infrequent: normal curve or bell-shaped curve, very few people fall at either extreme, ex: diagnosing mental retardation through iq measures. Below 70: ex: having great athletic ability, is abnormal but not bad. Violation of norms violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those observing it, can be culturally bound: ex: anti-social behaviour of psychopaths, ocd person, hearing voices, ex: criminal and prostitutes, are not studied under psychopathology. Personal distress personal suffering, behaviour that is abnormal if it creates great distress and torment in the person experiencing it: ex: psychopath, pain from childbirth. Disability impairment in some import area of life (work or personal relationships) because of an abnormality: ex: substance-use disorders, phobia, transvestism.