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Study Guide

PSYB32H3- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 94 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
PSYB32H3
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PSYB32
Abnormal Psychology
Chapter 1 Notes
Itroductio: Defiitioal ad Historical Cosideratios ad Caada’s Metal Health Syste
- Psychopathology: the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behaviour,
thoughts, and feelings
- Another challenge we face is the need to remain objective
- Mental health issues are very much at the fore-front of the public consciousness at present, and
this partly due to the efforts of heroic famous Canadians such as Clara Hughes and the many
individuals and corporations who are determined to make a difference
- Due to exceptional efforts of the Mental Health Commission of Canada and individuals across
our nation, Canada finally has its first comprehensive Mental Health Strategy
What is Abnormal Behaviour?
- Abnormality is usually determined by the presence of several characteristics at one time
- Best definition includes characteristics as statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal
distress, disability or dysfunction and unexpectedness
Statistical Infrequency
- One aspect of abnormal behaviour is that it is infrequent in the general population
- The normal curve (or bell shaped curve) places the majority of people on the middle as far as
any particular characteristic is concerned; very few people fall at either extreme
- An assertion that a person is normal implies that he or she does not deviate much from the
average in a particular trait or behaviour pattern
- Used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation
- Although some infrequent behaviours or characters of people do strike us as abnormal, in some
instances, the relationship breaks down
Having great athletic ability is infrequent but does not fall under abnormal psychology
- The statistical component gives us a little guidance in determining which infrequent behaviours
psychopathologists should study
Violation of Norms
- Another characteristic to consider is whether the behaviour violates social norms or threatens
or makes anxious those observing it
- Violation of norms explicitly makes abnormality a relative concept; various forms of unusual
behaviour can be tolerated, depending on the prevailing cultural norms
- Cultural diversity can affect how people view social norms
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Personal Suffering
- Another characteristic is personal suffering; behaviour is abnormal if it creates great distress and
torment in the person experiencing it
- Personal distress clearly fits many of the forms of abnormality considered in this book- people
experiencing anxiety disorders and depression truly suffer greatly- but some disorders do not
necessarily involve distress
Psychopaths treat other cold- heartedly and may continually violate the law without
experiencing any guilt, remorse or anxiety whatsoever
Disability or Dysfunction
- Substance- use disorders are defined in part by the social or occupational disability created by
substance abuse and addiction
- A phobia can produce distress and disability
A severe fear of flying may prevent someone from taking a job promotion
- Like suffering, disability applies to some, but not all, disorders
Transvestism (cross dressing for sexual pleasure) is currently diagnosed as a mental disorder
if it distresses the person, is not necessarily a disability
- Do not have a rule that tells us which disabilities belong and which do not
Unexpectedness
- Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to
environmental stressors
Anxiety disorder is diagnosed when the anxiety is unexpected and out of proportion to the
situation as when a person who Is well off worries constantly about his or her financial
situation
Mental Health Professions
- Various clinicians authorized to provide psychological services
- To be a clinical psychologist typically requires a Ph.D or a Psy.D degree with entails four to seven
years of graduate study
- However in Canada, depending on regulatory statutes, a psychologist may have either a
doctoral- or a masters level degree
In some jurisdictions, the title psychologist is reserved for doctoral- level registrants, where
as master- level registrants are referred to as psychological associates
- The 1995 Agreement on Internal Trade stipulated that a framework for mobility had to be
developed so that the credentials of professional psychologists from one part of Canada would
be recognized in other parts of Canada
A Mutual Recognition agreement was signed in June 2001. This requires a person to obtain 5
core competencies to be a registered psychologist
o Interpersonal relationships
o Assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis)
o Intervention and consultation
o Research
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