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Final

PSYB32H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder, Fugue State, Histrionic Personality Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Study Guide
Final

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PSYB32 EXAM GUIDELINE
Lecture 5:
Chapter 7: Somatoform and dissociative disorders
-Inter-rater reliability is poor, culture plays a moderating roles
-Only pain disorder with both psychological factors and a general medical condition
will be diagnosis because pain is a subjective experience and have no test thus we
can never know whether it is a psychological or physical.
-Pain disorders are often co-morbid with substance abuse e.g. pain killers, anxiety,
and depression
-These patients are reinforced and develop into iatrogenic disability; reinforcement of
being disabled
-Typically women suffer from body dysmorphic disorders than men, and will be more
specific
-It is important to know that patients, who suffer from body dysmorphic disorders
(BDD), often have obsessive compulsive personality disorder characteristics. They
are obsessed with looking at their defective reflection in mirror. Usually begins in late
adolescence or adulthood
-Depression, social phobia co-morbit because imagine defect and not want to be in
public, or sad about defects
-They usually meet the criteria of a delusional
-5% of the population might have hypochondriacs, and is chronic. Depression and
anxiety is highly co-morbit
-Hypochondriacs have shifting complaints, believe they have a specific disorder
-Somatization disorder patients have symptom complaints, more often in women and
runs in families (20%)
-Depression and anxiety is highly co-morbit along with substance abuse and
histrionic personality disorder, and conversion disorder
-Conversion disorder, may have Phonia(lost of voice), Anosmia (lost of smell),
symptoms appear suddenly as a result of a stressor
-Malingering is when the person is consciously faining/faking impairment in the
context of external incentive such as insurance check or getting out of military
-Factitious disorder is when the patient intentionally faining/faking impairment without
external incentive
-Conversion disorder is when the impairment is unconscious
-Munchausen Biproxy: When a person causes a family member illness in order to
care for; conscious complaints
-Dissociative disorders are rare and do not know the cause
-Dissociative amnesia is usually “time locked” which means it lasts for a period of
time and goes away suddenly like the onset usually after a stressful event
-Sodium amatol: truth serum, relaxes unconscious guard
-Dissociative fugue, even more uncommon, 0.2% prevalence in population
-Fugue is brief in duration, occurs after severe stressor, rare that it will recur again
after recovery

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-Dissociative disorders usually have acute onsets
-1.3% prevalence of D.I.D. but commonly misdiagnosis of being borderline or
schizophrenia (vice versa).
-Begins in childhood or adulthood
-There are gaps in between memories of separate egos
-DID is chronic and severe causing disability
Chapter 6: Anxiety Disorder
-Anxiety disorders are the most common, 31% lifetime prevalence
-Co-morbidity amongst the different anxiety disorders are high because symptoms
are not disorder specific
e.g. elevated heart rate may be a symptom for OCD and GAD, causes/etiology
may be applicable to more than one disorder
-Claustrophobia: fear of enclosed spaces
-Agoraphobia: fear of open spaces with a lot of people
-Xenophobia: fear of strangers
-Phobia: comes from Greek work of being afraid
-Specific phobia is more prevalent in women
-Categories of specific phobia: objects, situation, animals, natural environment
-Social phobia is more disabling than specific phobia
-Generalized or specific qualifier of social phobia. Women have a higher probability
(11 vs. 15% lifetime prevalence)
-Panic attacks can occur to any one of the anxiety disorders
-Systematic desensitization- Joseph Walt
-Flooding: forcing the patient into the phobia
-GAD is always there
-GAD: 5% prevalence, underestimate
-OCD, compulsions are not pleasant
Guest Speaker: Chris Rodregious; Gestalt Psychologist
-Integrated therapist, using variety of approaches
-Excitement and anxiety have the same physiologic reactions, the difference is how
you interpret it
-View from a holistic approach, addresses what is happening in the moment not the
past or future
-Brings into awareness discrepancies in the person’s presentation (e.g. someone
who is crying but says she feels great)
-Gestalt is bringing someone into congruent with the presentation and acceptance of
self awareness
-It includes the neurosis, as a necessary element in the change process
-How the individual resist contact in the here and now or how they resist change is
the rich resource from which the therapist draws interventions.
-Perls’ basic premise was that life happens in the present not in the past or the future
and that when we are dwelling on the past or fantasizing about the future we are not
living fully. Through living in the present we are able to take responsibility for our
responses and actions. To be fully present in the here and now offers us more
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excitement, energy and courage to live life directly
-It is based on a need cycle, sensation, awareness, mobilization of energy,
excitement, action, contact, withdrawal(only when satisfied)
-Neurosis interrupts the cycle and results in unfinished business
-Anxiety is an essential expression of being alive and anxiety is the beginning of
feeling (of what’s going to happen)
-If the excitement is blocked because of beliefs or interruptions, excitement becomes
anxiety and build up and become chronic
-The holding or stuck of the cycle is a mechanism to protection against emotion
-Anxiety holds in emotion
-Sensory sensation, learn to be highly aware of yourself
-Paradoxical theory of change: the more you try to become something, the less of it
you become
Lecture 6:
Chapter 10: Mood Disorders
-Cognitive biases:
-Arbitrary inference: where the individual will draw conclusions without evidence. For
example, associate feelings with reality and thoughts to your relationship to the
external world
-Selective abstraction: conclusion drawn from only one of the elements from a
situation, an element you choose to focus on. For example, focus on less positive
aspects of a situation and create negative conclusions from that.
-Overgeneralization: overall sweeping conclusion based on a single trivia event.
Everyone over generalizes but it is what the person feels after that differs from the
depressed. For example, you receive a bad grade in history and all of a sudden you
make the conclusion that you are simply bad in history
-Magnification and minimization: when we exaggerate our evaluation of performance
in either direction.
-Panic attack (more common in women with mood disorders), substance abuse
(males have higher rates), sexual dysfunction (males with mood disorders have high
rates of comorbitity and personality disorders (females more prevalent) are highly
co-morbit with mood disorders
-Symptoms of depression vary within the life time
-More somatic complaints with younger patients such as headaches
-Elderly with depression tend to not only report depression symptoms but also
cognitive impairments
-To be major depression to occur, at least five symptoms (one of which should be lost
of interest or depressed mood) must occur with the minimum of 2 weeks
-Psychomotor retardation: someone who is hypo phonic or walking slowly, dragging
feet
-Agitated: irritable, less tolerance and no patience
-Patients tend to report cognition to be more effortful
-5-17% of lifetime depression prevalence, it is variable because
1. Diagnostic criteria used, some researcher do not follow DSM criteria, making
exceptions
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