amount stay in the bloodstream if it cannot be broken down in the liver. Absorption can be
fast, but removal can be slow. It has a biphasic effect initial effect of alcohol is stimulating –
the drinker experiences an expansive feeling of sociability and well-being as the blood
alcohol level rises – but after the blood alcohol level peaks and beings to decline, alcohol
acts as a depressant that may lead to negative emotions. It stimulates GABA receptors,
which may be respsonsible for reducing tension. Also increases levels of serotonin and
dopamine, and this maybe be the source of pleasurable effects.
Long-term effects of prolonged alcohol abuse – dementia, liver failure. Also
malnutrition (alcohol has alot of calories with no nutrients). Heavy alcohol consumption
during pregnancy is the leading cause of mental retardation (fetal alcohol syndrome). Light
drinking (fewer tahn three drinks a day), especially of wine, has been related to decreased
risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.
Inhalant Use Disorders – substances such as glue, correction fluid, spray paint,
cosmetics, gasoline. They are dangerous because they are inexpensive and readily available.
Nicotine and Cigarette Smoking – nicotine is the addicting agent of tobacco. It
stimulates receptors, called nicotinic receptors, in the brain. Studies who nicotine has high
reinforcing efficacy. Addcitive effects of nicotine start very shortly after one’s first puff.
Prevalence and health consequences of smoking – smoking is the single most preventable
cause of premature death. Health risks of smoking are significantly less for cigar and pipe
smokers because they seldom inhale the smoke into their lungs. Destruction of lung tissue
is not reversible. Cigarette smoking can contributes to erectile problems in men.
Consequences of second hand smoke - second hand smoke (environmental tobacco smoke
(ETS)) contains higher concentrations of ammonia, carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar than
does the smoke actually inhaled by the smoker.
Marijuana – consists of the dried and crushed leaves and flowering tops of the hemp plant,
CANNABIS SATIVA. Hashish – much stronger than marijuana, is produced by removing
and drying the resin exudates of the tops of high quality cannabis plants. Hemp plant was
used for cloth and rope instead of smoking.
Effects or marijuana:
Psychological effects – time moves by really slowly, more relaxed, more sociable,
feeling paranoid. Major active chemical in marijuana is THC and that is what causes the
kind of reaction you will get.
Somatic effects – increases appetite, red eyes, dry mouth and throat, somewhat
raises blood pressure, short term memory loss. One marijuana cigarette is the equivalent of