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really good study guide for textbook material

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

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Chapter 1
Introduction: Definitional and Historical Considerations and Canadas
Mental Health System
Bretts Childhood
Had difficulty in maintaining an erection when making love to his wife
Had difficulty maintain an erection when making love to his wife
He had a difficult childhood, his mother passed away when he was 6 and his father
was a heavy drinker, diagnoses with manic depressive psychosis and could only
afford to live in rundown neighbourhoods, thus he lived with his aunt for many
weeks
He managed to get to university with a loan, but then experienced bouts of sadness
followed by manic elation (like his father)
He was extremely nervous and self conscious
He became a police, but his mood swings still bothered him
In his thirties him and his wife wanted a family, but he was unable to achieve an
erection
He also became suspicious of his wife, for she was becoming more beautiful than ever
One day she came home late, he was already drunk, he accused her of infidelity, she
taunted him of his inability to make love, and he left and now is seeking professional
help
Psychopathology: the field concerned with nature and development of abnormal
behaviour, thoughts, and feelings
Another challenge of abnormal psychology is the need to remain objective
What is Abnormal Behaviour?
There is no single one definition that is adequate
The best definition of abnormal behaviour includes such characteristics of; statistical
frequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and
unexpectedness
The following 5 characteristics provide a framework for defining abnormality
Statistical Infrequency
One aspect of abnormal behaviour is that its infrequent
The normal curve, or bell shaped curve, places the majority o people in the middle in
any characteristic (very few people are at either end or extremes)
When someone is considered normal it is that he or she doesnt deviate much from
the average
This statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation
oWhen an individuals IQ is below 70 they are considered subnormal and
considered mentally retarded
But not all behaviours that are infrequent are abnormal (ex. great athletic ability)
Violation of Norms
www.notesolution.com
Whether the behaviour violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those
observing it helps categorize it as abnormal
There are exceptions to this also; criminals and prostitutes break social norms but
are not considered abnormal or need to e studied within the domain of abnormal
psychology
Cultural diversity can affect how people view social norms
oWhat is normal in one culture may be abnormal in another
Personal Distress
It can be considered abnormal if it creates personal suffering, great distress, and
torments the person
Again there are exceptions though
oPsychopath (treat others coldheartedly and may continuously violate the law
without experiencing any guilt, remorse, or anxiety whatsoever)
oAlso, not all forms of distress (hunger, or pain of childbirth) belong in this
field
Disability or dysfunction
Another component of abnormality is disability or dysfunction
Disability: impairment in some important area of life because of an abnormality
oEx. Work or personal relationships
Ex. Bretts marital relationship
Substance abuse also fits, as well as phobia (that can produce distress and disability)
Disability applies to some but all disorders
oTransvestism: cross dressing for sexual pleasure
Unexpectedness
Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses
to environmental stressors
Ex. Hunger is an expected response to not eating
Brett was experiencing some life stress, but many people do so without developing
psychological problems
The Mental Health Professions
Clinical psychologist
oRequires Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree (4-7 years of graduate study)
In Canada, depending upon regulatory statues, a psychologist may have either a
doctoral- or a masters-level degree
In some jurisdictions psychologist is reserved for doctoral-level registrants where
as masters level registrants are referred to as psychological associates
there is no consensus among the provinces on the minimal academic requirements,
the required length of supervised practise, and the timing of such practise
later there was an agreement on internal trade (AIT), that said in order to become
registered as a psychologist, 5 competency areas must be
ointerpersonal relationships
oassessment and evaluation
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 1 Introduction: Definitional and Historical Considerations and Canadas Mental Health System Bretts Childhood Had difficulty in maintaining an erection when making love to his wife Had difficulty maintain an erection when making love to his wife He had a difficult childhood, his mother passed away when he was 6 and his father was a heavy drinker, diagnoses with manic depressive psychosis and could only afford to live in rundown neighbourhoods, thus he lived with his aunt for many weeks He managed to get to university with a loan, but then experienced bouts of sadness followed by manic elation (like his father) He was extremely nervous and self conscious He became a police, but his mood swings still bothered him In his thirties him and his wife wanted a family, but he was unable to achieve an erection He also became suspicious of his wife, for she was becoming more beautiful than ever One day she came home late, he was already drunk, he accused her of infidelity, she taunted him of his inability to make love, and he left and now is seeking professional help Psychopathology: the field concerned with nature and development of abnormal behaviour, thoughts, and feelings Another challenge of abnormal psychology is the need to remain objective What is Abnormal Behaviour? There is no single one definition that is adequate The best definition of abnormal behaviour includes such characteristics of; statistical frequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness The following 5 characteristics provide a framework for defining abnormality Statistical Infrequency One aspect of abnormal behaviour is that its infrequent The normal curve, or bell shaped curve, places the majority o people in the middle in any characteristic (very few people are at either end or extremes) When someone is considered normal it is that he or she doesnt deviate much from the average This statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation o When an individuals IQ is below 70 they are considered subnormal and considered mentally retarded But not all behaviours that are infrequent are abnormal (ex. great athletic ability) Violation of Norms www.notesolution.com
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