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good textbook study guide for chp 1

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

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May people in western Europe were subject to hysterical states
Mesmer believed that it was caused by particular distribution of a universal
magnetic fluid in the body
oHe would take various rocks and touch afflicted parts of his patients bodies,
it was believed to transmit animal magnetism and adjust the distribution of
the universal magnetic fluid (thus, removing the hysteria disorder)
oHis approach was more hypnosis type
Charcot was important in reviving interest in psychogenesis
oHe later became interested in non-physiological interpretations of these very
puzzling phenomena
Breuer later treated a women with hysteria through hypnosis, and found that the
patient felt better having relaxed (known as the cathartic method)
Canadian Perspectives 1.2: The Mental Hospital in Canada: The twentieth century
and into the new millennium
The provincial hospitals became very crowded
Sometimes there was not enough treatments for all the patients
Drugs became the central means of treatment
Institutions in Canada also started to become inhuman due to the lack of resources
The goal in Canada was to shift care into the psychiatric units associated with
general hospitals and into the community
In 1980-90s there was a trend of deinstitutionalization that continued
But most deinstitutionalized people were left in poverty or prison
Deinstitutionalization: to release (a mentally or physically handicapped person)
from a hospital, asylum, home, or other institution with the intention of providing
treatment, support, or rehabilitation primarily through community resources under
the supervision of health-care professionals or facilities
Only 3% of the Canadian budget went to provincial mental health budgets as of 1990
(most mental health money go to hospitals via global budgets and to physicians for
free service)
Patients receive little individual psychosocial treatment
The psychiatric hospitals are old, grim and removed from major metropolitan centers
But they are much better than the ones in US
Private hospitals tend to be better than those of state hospitals because
oThe private hospitals have more money ($1000/per for a patient)
oCanada more comparable to theses private hospitals than the state hospitals
There is also a special mental hospital sometimes called prison or forensic
hospital (reserved for people who have done a criminal act, but judged as not
criminally responsible due to their mental disorder)
oTheir lives are controlled by guards and tight security
oThere are 3 in Canada
Investigators found that 80-90% of patients waking hours is with NO contact with
staff
www.notesolution.com
Most traditional hospitals prefer using drug therapy rather than psychotherapy
Most patients who stay in the hospitals for over a year are frightened to be
discharged and enter the real world
Milieu therapy: where the entire hospital becomes a therapeutic community
oSocial interaction and group activities are encouraged
oPatients are treated as responsible humans rather than custodial cases
Currently in Canada there is a problem of bed reduction in hospitals
The role of the provincial psychiatric hospital in Canada in the new millennium will
be tertiary they will provide specialized treatment and rehabilitation service for
those who needs are too complex to be managed by the community
CTO community treatment orders: a legal tool that is issued by a medical
practitioner and establishes the condition under which a mentally ill person may live
in the community
oIf one fails to follow the CTO, they will be brought back the hospital
No doubt that, the asylums will all disappear in the new millennium
Canadian Perspectives 1.3: The lesson of history: A view from the 21st century
Dr. Cameron was a psychologist who secretly administered drugs to patients,
without their or their families consent
His quest led to a theory of beneficial brainwashing
It was later found that this was done for the CIA & Canadian federal government, in
which they believed these brainwashing strategies might be used on enemies of the
US during the cold war
Dr.Cameron and his staff administered massive doses of hallucinogenic drugs (like
LSD), intensive & repeated courses of electro convulsive therapy (ECT) or shock
treatment 3 times/day
The patients were kept in a drug induced coma for 3 months
Dr.Cameron also administered so called psychic driving, in which subliminal
messages like you killed your mother were repeated over and over while patients
were in an induced state
The purpose was to wipe away’ the troubled past of the patients
Many patients had severe consequences; memory loss, many committed suicide,
needed extensive support, and other permanent damages
The federal government settled to pay 100 000/person; it was only discovered in 1977.
But they have not apologized to the patients or their families for taking away their
lives
Still today, there treatments like ECT, or other shock treatments that are less
commonly used, but with strict precautions, and as a last resort
Lobotomy or psychosurgery: surgical procedure, in which the tracts connecting the
frontal lobes and lower centres of the brain are destroyed
oThis was used and abused in Canada into the 1970s but later was found to
have harmful effects and was not effective
oThey are now banned in all public psychiatric hospitals
www.notesolution.com

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Description
May people in western Europe were subject to hysterical states Mesmer believed that it was caused by particular distribution of a universal magnetic fluid in the body o He would take various rocks and touch afflicted parts of his patients bodies, it was believed to transmit animal magnetism and adjust the distribution of the universal magnetic fluid (thus, removing the hysteria disorder) o His approach was more hypnosis type Charcot was important in reviving interest in psychogenesis o He later became interested in non-physiological interpretations of these very puzzling phenomena Breuer later treated a women with hysteria through hypnosis, and found that the patient felt better having relaxed (known as the cathartic method) Canadian Perspectives 1.2: The Mental Hospital in Canada: The twentieth century and into the new millennium The provincial hospitals became very crowded Sometimes there was not enough treatments for all the patients Drugs became the central means of treatment Institutions in Canada also started to become inhuman due to the lack of resources The goal in Canada was to shift care into the psychiatric units associated with general hospitals and into the community In 1980-90s there was a trend of deinstitutionalization that continued But most deinstitutionalized people were left in poverty or prison Deinstitutionalization: to release (a mentally or physically handicapped person) from a hospital, asylum, home, or other institution with the intention of providing treatment, support, or rehabilitation primarily through community resources under the supervision of health-care professionals or facilities Only 3% of the Canadian budget went to provincial mental health budgets as of 1990 (most mental health money go to hospitals via global budgets and to physicians for free service) Patients receive little individual psychosocial treatment The psychiatric hospitals are old, grim and removed from major metropolitan centers But they are much better than the ones in US Private hospitals tend to be better than those of state hospitals because o The private hospitals have more money ($1000per for a patient) o Canada more comparable to theses private hospitals than the state hospitals There is also a special mental hospital sometimes called prison or forensic hospital (reserved for people who have done a criminal act, but judged as not criminally responsible due to their mental disorder) o Their lives are controlled by guards and tight security o There are 3 in Canada Investigators found that 80-90% of patients waking hours is with NO contact with staff www.notesolution.com
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