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textbook notes for chp 1

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

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Chapter 1
Introduction: Definitional and Historical Considerations and Canadas
Mental Health System
Bretts Childhood
Had difficulty in maintaining an erection when making love to his wife
Had difficulty maintain an erection when making love to his wife
He had a difficult childhood, his mother passed away when he was 6 and his father
was a heavy drinker, diagnoses with manic depressive psychosis and could only
afford to live in rundown neighbourhoods, thus he lived with his aunt for many
weeks
He managed to get to university with a loan, but then experienced bouts of sadness
followed by manic elation (like his father)
He was extremely nervous and self conscious
He became a police, but his mood swings still bothered him
In his thirties him and his wife wanted a family, but he was unable to achieve an
erection
He also became suspicious of his wife, for she was becoming more beautiful than
ever
One day she came home late, he was already drunk, he accused her of infidelity, she
taunted him of his inability to make love, and he left and now is seeking professional
help
Psychopathology: the field concerned with nature and development of abnormal
behaviour, thoughts, and feelings
Another challenge of abnormal psychology is the need to remain objective
What is Abnormal Behaviour?
There is no single one definition that is adequate
The best definition of abnormal behaviour includes such characteristics of; statistical
frequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and
unexpectedness
The following 5 characteristics provide a framework for defining abnormality
Statistical Infrequency
One aspect of abnormal behaviour is that its infrequent
The normal curve, or bell shaped curve, places the majority o people in the middle in
any characteristic (very few people are at either end or extremes)
When someone is considered normal it is that he or she doesnt deviate much from
the average
This statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation
oWhen an individuals IQ is below 70 they are considered subnormal and
considered mentally retarded
But not all behaviours that are infrequent are abnormal (ex. great athletic ability)
www.notesolution.com
Violation of Norms
Whether the behaviour violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those
observing it helps categorize it as abnormal
There are exceptions to this also; criminals and prostitutes break social norms but
are not considered abnormal or need to e studied within the domain of abnormal
psychology
Cultural diversity can affect how people view social norms
oWhat is normal in one culture may be abnormal in another
Personal Distress
It can be considered abnormal if it creates personal suffering, great distress, and
torments the person
Again there are exceptions though
oPsychopath (treat others coldheartedly and may continuously violate the law
without experiencing any guilt, remorse, or anxiety whatsoever)
oAlso, not all forms of distress (hunger, or pain of childbirth) belong in this
field
Disability or dysfunction
Another component of abnormality is disability or dysfunction
Disability: impairment in some important area of life because of an abnormality
oEx. Work or personal relationships
Ex. Bretts marital relationship
Substance abuse also fits, as well as phobia (that can produce distress and
disability)
Disability applies to some but all disorders
oTransvestism: cross dressing for sexual pleasure
Unexpectedness
Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected
responses to environmental stressors
Ex. Hunger is an expected response to not eating
Brett was experiencing some life stress, but many people do so without developing
psychological problems
The Mental Health Professions
Clinical psychologist
oRequires Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree (4-7 years of graduate study)
In Canada, depending upon regulatory statues, a psychologist may have either a
doctoral- or a masters-level degree
In some jurisdictions psychologist is reserved for doctoral-level registrants where
as masters level registrants are referred to as psychological associates
there is no consensus among the provinces on the minimal academic requirements,
the required length of supervised practise, and the timing of such practise
www.notesolution.com
later there was an agreement on internal trade (AIT), that said in order to become
registered as a psychologist, 5 competency areas must be
ointerpersonal relationships
oassessment and evaluation
ointervention and consultation
oresearch
oethics and standards
training requires heavy laboratory work, research design, statistics, and the
empirically based study of human and animal behaviour
A psychiatrist holds an M.D. degree and has had postgraduate training (called
residency)
oThey give physical examinations, diagnosing medical problems
oPrescribe psychoactive drugs, chemical compounds that can influence how
people think
A psychoanalyst has received specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute
oInvolves several years of clinical training as well as the in-depth
psychoanalysis of the trainee
oSigmund Freud
Social worker obtains an M.S.W (masters of social work) degree
Counselling psychologists are similar to clinical psychologists but they have less
emphasis on research and the more severe forms of psychopathology
A psychiatric nurse specializes in working in the mental health field
History of Psychopathology
Before the age of scientific inquiry, all good and bad manifestations of power being
the control of human kind (eclipses, earthquakes etc) were seen as supernatural
Unexplainable behaviour was also outside the individuals control and seem like
that as well
Many physicians, philosophers, theologians, believed the deviancy reflected the
displeasures of the gods or possessions by demons
Early Demonology
Demonology: the doctrine that an evil being, such as the devil, may dwell within a
person and control his or her mind and body
Its treatment often involved exorcism: the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic
chanting or torture (elaborate rites of prayer, noisemaking, drinking brews,
starvation etc)
Trepanning: of skulls, making of surgical opening in a living skull by some
instrument
oA way of treating or relieving conditions such as epilepsy, headaches, and
psychological disorders attributed to the demons within the cranium
oIt believed that the evil spirits could escape through this opening
Somatogenesis
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 1 Introduction: Definitional and Historical Considerations and Canadas Mental Health System Bretts Childhood Had difficulty in maintaining an erection when making love to his wife Had difficulty maintain an erection when making love to his wife He had a difficult childhood, his mother passed away when he was 6 and his father was a heavy drinker, diagnoses with manic depressive psychosis and could only afford to live in rundown neighbourhoods, thus he lived with his aunt for many weeks He managed to get to university with a loan, but then experienced bouts of sadness followed by manic elation (like his father) He was extremely nervous and self conscious He became a police, but his mood swings still bothered him In his thirties him and his wife wanted a family, but he was unable to achieve an erection He also became suspicious of his wife, for she was becoming more beautiful than ever One day she came home late, he was already drunk, he accused her of infidelity, she taunted him of his inability to make love, and he left and now is seeking professional help Psychopathology: the field concerned with nature and development of abnormal behaviour, thoughts, and feelings Another challenge of abnormal psychology is the need to remain objective What is Abnormal Behaviour? There is no single one definition that is adequate The best definition of abnormal behaviour includes such characteristics of; statistical frequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness The following 5 characteristics provide a framework for defining abnormality Statistical Infrequency One aspect of abnormal behaviour is that its infrequent The normal curve, or bell shaped curve, places the majority o people in the middle in any characteristic (very few people are at either end or extremes) When someone is considered normal it is that he or she doesnt deviate much from the average This statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation o When an individuals IQ is below 70 they are considered subnormal and considered mentally retarded But not all behaviours that are infrequent are abnormal (ex. great athletic ability) www.notesolution.comViolation of Norms Whether the behaviour violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those observing it helps categorize it as abnormal There are exceptions to this also; criminals and prostitutes break social norms but are not considered abnormal or need to e studied within the domain of abnormal psychology Cultural diversity can affect how people view social norms o What is normal in one culture may be abnormal in another Personal Distress It can be considered abnormal if it creates personal suffering, great distress, and torments the person Again there are exceptions though o Psychopath (treat others coldheartedly and may continuously violate the law without experiencing any guilt, remorse, or anxiety whatsoever) o Also, not all forms of distress (hunger, or pain of childbirth) belong in this field Disability or dysfunction Another component of abnormality is disability or dysfunction Disability : impairment in some important area of life because of an abnormality o Ex. Work or personal relationships Ex. Bretts marital relationship Substance abuse also fits, as well as phobia (that can produce distress and disability) Disability applies to some but all disorders o Transvestism: cross dressing for sexual pleasure Unexpectedness Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to environmental stressors Ex. Hunger is an expected response to not eating Brett was experiencing some life stress, but many people do so without developing psychological problems The Mental Health Professions Clinical psychologist o Requires Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree (4-7 years of graduate study) In Canada, depending upon regulatory statues, a psychologist may have either a doctoral- or a masters-level degree In some jurisdictions psychologist is reserved for doctoral-level registrants where as masters level registrants are referred to as psychological associates there is no consensus among the provinces on the minimal academic requirements, the required length of supervised practise, and the timing of such practise www.notesolution.com
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