[PSYB45H3] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (124 pages long)

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PSYB45H3
FINAL EXAM
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1
PSYB45 LECTURE NOTES
Behavior Modification
Week 1 – May 4 th
, 2015
Behavior: anything a person says or does.
oOvert behaviors: are visible to others, can be easily observed and recorded by others.
oCovert behaviors: are private, internal, cannot be easily observed by others (e.g., feelings and
thoughts).
oDimensions of behavior:
Duration: how long the behavior lasts.
Frequency: how often the behavior occurs.
Intensity or force: the strength of a behavior.
oBehavioral deficits: too little of a particular type of behavior.
oBehavioral excess: too much of a particular type of behavior.
Behavior modification: involves the systematic application of learning principles and techniques to
assess and improve individuals’ covert and overt behaviors in order to enhance their daily functioning.
oStrong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behaviors that can be measured in some
way, and using changes in behavioral measure of the problem as the best indicator of the extent
to which the problem is being helped.
E.g., he is a procrastinator, NO; there is a deficit in studying.
oBased on behavior analysis: the scientific study of the laws that govern behavior.
oTreatment procedures and techniques focus on ways of altering an individual’s current
environment to promote better functioning.
Focus on various factors (including the individual’s own behaviors) that are contributing
to current problematic behavior.
Altering stimuli in the person’s environment.
oBehavior modification methods and rationales can be described precisely.
oTechniques of behavior modification are often applied to people in their everyday lives.
Behavior modification techniques: stem from basic and applied research in the science of learning.
oDraw on principles of operant and Pavlovian conditioning.
oBehavior modification emphasizes scientific demonstration that a specific intervention was
responsible for a particular behavior change.
oHigh accountability is placed on everyone involved in behavior modification programs.
Behavioral assessment: involves the collection and analysis of information and data in order to:
oIdentify and describe target behaviors.
oIdentify possible causes of the behavior.
oGuide the selection of an appropriate behavioral treatment.
oEvaluate the treatment outcome.
Applied behavior analyst: formal training in applied behavior analysis.
Behavior therapist or Cognitive behavior therapist: formal training in behavior therapy or CBT.
Behavior modifier/Behavior manager/Performance manager: no formal training.
oIndividual who tries to improve another’s behavior or one’s own behavior.
Areas of application:
oParenting:
Behavioral techniques can be applied to help promote behaviors.
E.g., learning to walk, toilet training, sharing and helping behaviors.
Can also be applied to decrease problem behaviors.
E.g., temper tantrums, aggression, ignoring rules.
oDevelopmental disabilities:
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2
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): intensive behavioral interventions are often quite
effective when working with children with autism.
Help to promote pro-social behaviors, help develop language skills, etc.
Largely recognized as the treatment of choice for early intervention.
oBehavior therapy and CBT:
Working with a range of clinical disorders, including anxiety disorders (e.g., phobias,
obsessive-compulsive disorder) and depressive disorders.
For certain clinical disorders, behavioral therapy approaches show the strongest
evidence for therapeutic outcomes, either alone or in combination with medication.
oSelf-management
oMedical and Health Care:
Health psychologists make use of behavioral principles in numerous areas of health
care and with different medical populations.
E.g., promoting treatment adherence, stress management, promoting exercise
and healthy diet.
The importance of recognizing the role of cultural factors (defined broadly) in the practice of behavior
modification.
oNeed to take individual’s background and context into account when conducting any kind of
therapeutic work.
oWhat constitutes a desirable behavior can vary across contexts, as can the reasons underlying
problematic behaviors.
oMust also be careful not to draw conclusions about any one individual simply because they
belong to a given social or cultural group.
Avoid stereotyping.
oRequires a nuanced approach, focused on the individual in context.
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