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Study Guide

[PSYB45H3] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (153 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSC
PSYB45H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Withdrawn behavior: For example, an autistic boy sitting quietly by himself in class, making no attempt
to join in the fun with other nursery school children are in the playground.
Ineffective studying: for example, a person knows he has papers due next week and an exam, but he
continues to spend hours each day on Facebook and YouTube.
Performance nervousness: for example, a gymnast waiting for her turn to perform on the balance beam
at a championship. She shos sigs of etee eousess, thikig to heself hat if I do’t pefo
ell?
Campground littering: example, two people arrive at a place to camp and look with disgust and
amazement at the litter left by previous campers.
Migraine headaches: example a mother preparing dinner for her family, she starts feeling nauseous due
to a migraine and tells her family to set up the dinner themselves.
Staff management: example firing a staff person
Irrational thinking: after getting a bad mark, a person might thik I’ll ee e a good studet.
All of the above vignettes involve some sort of human behavior.
Behavior modification is applicable to the entire range of human behavior
WHAT IS BEHAVIOR?
Behavior is anything that a person says or does. Technically, behavior is any muscular, glandular, or
electrical activity of an organism.
Getting a good grade in a course, or losing 10 pounds are not behaviors, they are products of behavior
the ehaio that podues the good gade is studig effetiel.
Walking, talking, throwing a ball, yelling are all overt (visible) behaviors that can be observed and
recorded by an individual other than the one performing the behavior.
Behavior can also refer to covert piate, iteal atiities that a’t e eadil oseed  othes.
I ehaio odifiatio, oet ehaios do’t efe to ehaios doe i piate udessig, nor do
they refer to secretive actions (cheating on exams). In behavior modification, covert behaviors refer to
atiities that ou ithi oe’s ski ad that euie speial istuets o procedures for others to
observe example if someone gets nervous, their heart rate increases.
Both covert and overt behaviors can be influenced by techniques of behavioral modification.
Sometimes we think in words, called private self-talk I hope I do’t fall. Other times we think by
imagining.
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Imagining and private self-talk, in addition to being called covert behaviors, are also called cognitive
behaviors.
Characteristics of behavior that can be measured are called dimensions of behavior.
Duration of behavior is the length of time it lasts (e.g. studying for an hour).
Frequency of behavior is the number of instances that occur in a given period of time (e.g. frank planted
5 tomato plants in 30 minutes).
Intensity or force of a behavior refers to physical effort or energy involved in emitted the behavior (e.g.
Mary has a strong grip when shaking hands).
SUMMARY LABELS FOR BEHAVIOR
Terms such as honest, carefree, hardworking, unreliable, independent, selfish, incompetent, nervous are
sua laels fo hua atios, ut the do’t efe to speifi ehaios.
Eaple if ou desie a a as eous, people ould’t ko if ou ee efeig to the peso’s
tendency to chew his nails frequently, or his constant fidgeting.
Intelligence, attitudes, and creativity are also summary labels. What is intelligence? To many people
intelligence is an innate capacity for learning, but we never observe or directly measure any such thing.
O a itelligee test, e sipl easue people’s ehaio – their answers to questions as they take
the test.
The word intelligent is est used i its adjetie fo e.g. he’s a itelliget speake o its ade
fo e.g. she ites itelligetl to describe how people behave under certain condition, such as
takig a test, ot as a ou fo soe thig.
What about an attitude? E.g. Joh’s teahe epots he has a ad attitude toad shool. It ould
mean that Johnny skips school, refuses to do classwork, and swears at the teacher whatever she
eas he she talks aout his ad attitude, it’s leal a ehaio ith hih she is e oeed.
Creativity refers to kinds of behavior that a person is likely to engage under certain situations. Creative
individuals emit behaviors that are novel or unusual and at the same time have desirable effects.
There are many positive reasons that summary terms or labels for behavior are used in psychology:
First, they are useful for quickly providing general information about how an individual may
perform
Labels may imply that a particular treatment program will be helpful e.g. someone with road
rage may take an anger-management program.
Use of summary labels also has disadvantages:
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