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Study Guide

PSYB45H3- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 12 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSC
PSYB45H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PSYB45 LEC08: ANTECEDENT CONTROL PROCEDURES
· antecedent: occurring before the behavior
- Focusing on strategies that involve manipulation of antecedent stimuli to influence behavior
RULES
- Contingency of Reinforcement: a situation in which behavior will lead to a consequence
· partial rules: do’t idetify all three aspets of a otigey of reiforeet; ut a
still control behavior (ex. consequences can often be implied)
· contingency-shaped behavior: behavior that has been strengthened/ weakened due to its
immediate consequence in particular setting
- gradually strengthened through trial-and-error based on reinforcement and non-
reinforcement
· rule-governed behavior: ehaior that’s otrolled y the stateet of a rule
- often involves delayed consequences and frequently leads to immediate behavior change
rules are helpful when:
- rapid behavior change is desired
- consequences are delayed
- natural reinforcers are highly intermittent
- behavior will lead to immediate and severe punishment; trial and error can be costly
factors that influence rule effectiveness:
- specific vs vague behavior and consequence descriptions
- probable vs improbable consequences
- sizeable vs small consequences
- presence of a deadline
- example:
· Behavioral Sleep Therapy: use of rule-governed behavior to help promote healthy sleep
habits and address sleep problems
GOALS
· Goals: describe level of performance toward which an individual or group should work
- often seen as linked to motivation
- like rule; sets out a circumstance-behavior-reinforcer combination BUT usually focuses
on longer term change over period of time
effective goals are:
· specific
· identify circumstances under which desirable behavior should occur
· challenging but realistic
· mastery criteria: guidelines for performing s skill; helps you know when mastery is met
· public
· include deadline and feedback
· committed to
S.M.A.R.T. Goals
- acronym used in clinical settings to help clients w/ goal setting
- popular in self-help literature
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S: specific
M:measurable
A: attainable; achievable
R: relevant; realistic; resourced
T: time-bound; time-limited; deadline
MODELING
· modeling: procedure where a sample of a given behavior is presented to induce person to
engage in a similar behavior
· generalized imitation: after learning to imitate a number of behaviors, individual learns to
imitate a new response on the first trial w/o reinforcement
- learning to imitate
Factors that influence Effectiveness of Modelling:
· idiidual’s history of eig reinforced or punished for imitating others
· characteristic of person to be modeled (more likely to imitate similar to self)
· how many people are modeling the behavior
· combining modeling with rules to promote effectiveness
Guidelines for Using Modelling:
· select models that are friends/ peers, are seen as competent, more than one model
· behavior should be appropriate level of complexity
· use natural reinforcers when possible
· complex behavior: sequence modeling form easy to difficult
· modeling scenes should be realistic as possible
- promote stimulus generalization
· use fading as necessary
- example: Clinical application
- role-playing or behavioral rehearsal social skills training, assertiveness training
PHYSICAL GUIDANCE
· physical guidance: application of physical contact to induce person to go through motions of
desired behavior
- used in combination with other procedures
Guidelines For Using Physical Guidance:
· learner is comfortable and relaxed
· determine stimuli to control behavior
· use rules or cue words during guidance
· reinforcement should be given immediately after successful imitation
· guidance should be sequenced gradually from easy to difficult behavior
· use fading as necessary
· situational inducement: influencing behavior using situations and occasions that already exert
control over the behavior (ex. how stores are set up to promote browsing and purchasing)
- types:
· rearranging existing surroundings
· moving activity to new location
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