PSYB45H3- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 18 pages long!)

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PSYB45H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSYB45-Behaviour Modification Lec 09
Chapter 22: Doing Behaviour Modification Research
Kelly, a second grade student performed at a much lower level in completing addition
and subtraction problems than any of the other students in her daily math classes; she
was also disruptive during the class
Teahe easoed that ieasig Kell’s pefoae i solig the assiged math
problems might make it more pleasurable for Kelly to work at the problems and might
also decrease the disruptive interactions with nearby students
The teacher told Kelly that for every math problem she gets correct per half hour, the
whole class would have 1 extra minute of recess. Her performance improved due to this
Behaviour modification research attempts to demonstrate that it was the treatment,
not some uncontrolled variable, that was responsible for any change in the target
behaviour
The Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Design
Suppose that teacher wanted to demonstrate that
the treatment program was indeed responsible for
Kell’s ipoeet, hence at the end of 2nd week
of the reinforcement program, the teacher decided
to eliminate the reinforcement and return to the
baseline condition
By end of 2nd week of return to baseline
conditions, Kelly was performing at approx. her
baseline level. Teacher then reintroduced the
teatet phase ad Kell’s pefoae
improved. Teacher had replicated both the original baseline and the original treatment
effects
No ofidet that it as ideed the teahe’s poedue that podued the desied
behavioural change demonstrating a cause-effect relationship btw a particular
behaviour and the treatment program
Dependent variable: A measure of behaviour that is studied as a function of an
independent variable
Independent variable: A treatment or intervention introduced to study its influence or
effect on a dependent variable
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PSYB45-Behaviour Modification Lec 09
Two considerations in evaluating a possible cause-effect relationship are internal validity
and external validity
Internal validity: Said of a study or experiment if it convincingly demonstrated that
the independent variable caused the observed change in the dependent variable
External validity: The extent to which a finding of a study or experiment can be
generalized to other behaviours, individuals, settings or treatments
Reversal-replication design: An experimental design consisting of a baseline phase,
followed by a treatment phase, followed by a reversal back to baseline, followed by a
replication of the treatment phase. Also called an ABAB design or withdrawal design
because treatment is withdrawn during the second baseline phase
Baseline is often represented as A and the treatment
noted as B
How long should the baseline phase last?
By looking at the graphs on the right, we can note that
baseline 4 and 5 are most adequate
Baseline 4 is acceptable because the pattern of
behaviour appears stable and predictable; Baseline 5 is
acceptable because the trend observed is in a direction
opposite to the effect predicted for the independent
variable acting on the dependent variable
Ideally, then, a baseline phase should continue until
the pattern of performance is stable or until it shows a
trend in the direction opposite to that predicted when
the independent variable is introduced
Other considerations might lead to shortening or lengthening a baseline in an applied
research project
First, scientific considerations related to the newness of the independent and
dependent variables should be reviewed; we might be more comfortable conducting a
shorter baseline in a new study of behaviour that has already been well researched than
in a study of a less explored area
Second, practical considerations might limit the length of baseline observations. For
ex researchers available time, the observers availability, the students restrictions for
completing projects on time, and other factors might lead us to limit or extend the
baseline for non-scientific reasons
Finally, ethical considerations often affect baseline length. For ex an extended
baseline phase is ethically unacceptable when attempting to manage the self-abusive
behaviour of a child with a developmental disability
How many reversals and replications are necessary?
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