PSYB45H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Behaviorism, Programmed Learning, Classical Conditioning

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Published on 20 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
PSYB45 BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION
MIDTERM NOTES
Chapter 1: What is Applied Behaviour Analysis
- Development of behaviour depends on heredity and experience
o Heredity charts the course of maturation; and develops the tendency towards
behaviours of certain types
- Respondent conditioning = Conditioning a response (Pavlov)
- Operant Conditioning = Learning behaviour through the outcomes (Pos./Neg. Reinforce)
- Modeling = Learn by watching (Bandura and Bobo Doll)
- Cognition refers to covert behaviours
- Applied behaviour analysis = field of practice/study that focuses on using principles of
learning to understand and improve socially significant behaviours. (particularly operant)
- Focus on Behavioural methods; Cognitive methods focus on modifying thought processes
- Behaviour analysts focus on:
o Defining people’s current status and progress in terms of behaviours
o Being able to measure the behaviour
o Whenever possible assessing covert behaviours in terms of overt actions
- Psychoanalytic theory (Freud) = behaviour as an expression of their personality and
component forces such as drive and conflicts
- Behaviourism emerged early 1900’s (Watson, Skinner) = emphasises study of observable
and measureable behaviour
- Three lines of study especially important:
o Thorndike (studied how satisfying and annoying consequences affect learning)
o Pavlov (Salivating dogs)
o Skinner (Named and defined operant and respondent, designed operant chamber)
- Wolpe developed highly effective respondent conditioning therapy for reducing
fears/anxieties
Chapter 2: Identifying and Assessing Target Behaviours
- A good definition of target behaviour is objective and unambiguous
- Outcome goals are broad or abstracted results we want to achieve
- Behavioural goal is the level of target behaviour we hope to achieve in a program
- Behavioural chain = motor activity that consists of a sequence of antecedents and
responses
- Yes to following supports giving priority to the behaviour to be changed
o Lead to reinforcement in everyday environment
o Reduce occurrence of harm or damage
o Be a prerequisite for learning a skill that enables person to function better
o Affect in positive ways others in their life
o Behavioural cusp = benefits beyond its direct effects because it exposes person to
new richer environments
o Show response generalization (altering one behaviour leads to changes in others)
o Take place of or interfere with performing a problem behaviour
- Latency = amount of time a person takes to initiate the appropriate response to an
antecedent
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PSYB45 BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION
MIDTERM NOTES
- Quality = For when goal involves improving how well the person performs a target
behaviour
- Trials to Criterion = counting number of tries it takes to achieve specific level of
performance
- Percentage = proportion of behaviours that meet the criterion
- Continuous Recording = designating specific period of time and trying to observe and
record every instance of target behaviour during that time
o Real-life recording = continuous when observer records start and start time of
each behaviour
- Interval Recording = designate a number of specific observation periods, divide each into
short intervals of equal length and record if behaviour occurs in each (y/n)
- Time Sampling = designate number of observation periods, divide each into subperiods
of equal length and designate short interval at the beginning of each to record behaviour
- Accurate = recorded value = true value/ Valid = reflects what is intended to measure
- Reactivity = People’s behaviour becomes more desirable as an effect of being observed
- Interobserver agreement (IOA) different observers acquire same data
o Sessions Total = all data collected is added and the smaller total is divided by the
larger
o Point-by-point agreement = Divide number of intervals in which observed
behaviour was agreed to occur, by the total number of intervals
- Negative Practice = in self-monitoring, perform behaviour over and over again while
paying attention to every sensation it produces
- 80% Reliability is generally considered accepable
Chapter 3: Using Data and Research Methods in Behaviour Analysis
- When data varies greatly we can calculate the mean of groups, mostly grouped by weeks
- Cumulative Graphs = Line graphs in which measure of behaviour accumulates across
units (ex. Week 1 = 2, week 3 = 4; On graph the points would be 2, 6, respectively)
- Complete graph needs (Axes; Axis scaling and labels; data points; phase lines/labels;
caption)
- Graphic Analysis = Inspect graph data to see if behaviour changed substantially when
intervention implemented
- Graphic analysis done at the start of intervention to see if it working; need to asses two
trends: one reflects whether behaviour improved from baseline to intervention, the other
if it improved during intervention.
- Trend Line = Line of best fit that passes through the mean of the data of each phase
- AB design useful when we just need to know the extent the behaviour changed, but not
when we want to isolate the cause
- Reversal Designs = ABA and ABAB (advantage of demonstrating increases and
decreases in behaviour that correspond to presence and absence of intervention)
- Three problems for using reversal designs:
o Effect of intervention may not be reversible (which means during the second A
we can’t be sure why the behaviour changed if it doesn’t revert to baseline)
o Sometimes hard to decide what would constitute a reversal
o May be unethical to withdraw an intervention
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Document Summary

Development of behaviour depends on heredity and experience: heredity charts the course of maturation; and develops the tendency towards behaviours of certain types. Respondent conditioning = conditioning a response (pavlov) Operant conditioning = learning behaviour through the outcomes (pos. /neg. Modeling = learn by watching (bandura and bobo doll) Applied behaviour analysis = field of practice/study that focuses on using principles of learning to understand and improve socially significant behaviours. (particularly operant) Focus on behavioural methods; cognitive methods focus on modifying thought processes. Behaviour analysts focus on: defining people"s current status and progress in terms of behaviours, being able to measure the behaviour, whenever possible assessing covert behaviours in terms of overt actions. Psychoanalytic theory (freud) = behaviour as an expression of their personality and component forces such as drive and conflicts. Behaviourism emerged early 1900"s (watson, skinner) = emphasises study of observable and measureable behaviour.

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