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PSYB45H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Stimulus Control, Applied Behavior Analysis, Reinforcement

Course Code
Amanda Uliaszek
Study Guide

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Chapter 5: Reinforcement: Positive & Negative
- Natural Reinforcers: happen as a normal part of every day events and are not planned or given
systematically to affect behaviour
- Automatic Reinforcement: behaviour produces reinforcer directly without other people playing
a role
- Programmed Reinforcer: provided within a program of reinforcement with goal of increasing or
strengthening specific behaviours
- Unconditioned Reinforcer: function as reinforcer even when there is no learning involved (i.e.
pain, hunger, thirst)
- Conditioned Reinforcer: stimuli that did not have ability to strengthen behaviour until they
became reinforcing as a result of learning
- Clark Hull proposed biological needs produce unpleasant internal drives (i.e. hunger) which are
reduced by performing behavior that leads to an unconditioned reinforcer
- Butler Put monkeys in a cage that prevented them from seeing out; trained to open the door
which showed them an empty laboratory room; door opening occurred at higher rates when
there was a moving stimuli in the laboratory room
- Rats trained to run to water; those who received sugar-water ran 6 times faster than regular
- Electrodes placed in rat’s brain; would perform response at extremely high rates only when
stimulated in a particular area o the brain (septal area)
- Three properties of reinforcers may make them reinforcing
o Provide sensory stimulation
o Involve high-probability behaviours
o Have specific physiological effects
- Premack Principle: One reason consequences are reinforcing is that they involve performing
high-probability behaviours , and these activities will work as reinforcers only for less frequent
- Response Deprivation Hypothesis: using a high-probability behaviour as a reward makes that
behaviour contingent on performing an infrequent behaviour; thereby restricting or depriving
the person of their usual opportunities to perform the behaviour.
- Social Reinforcer: consequences consisting of interpersonal acts
o Three main advantages: administered easily and quickly; can be given immediately after
target behaviour; they occur naturally in every day life
- Motivating Operations (MOs): procedures that temporarily alter the effectiveness of a
consequence on behaviour and performance of behaviours that normally lead to those
Chapter 6: Extinction
- Extinction: procedure or condition in which a previously reinforced response no longer receives
reinforcement, and it is a process hereby the rate and force in performing the no longer
reinforced behaviour decreases
- Extinction Burst: temporary increase in frequency and magnitude when reinforcement fails to
- When using extinction behaviour analysts often reinforce actions of two types:
o Competing Response: action that is incompatible or interferes with performance of a
target behaviour

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o Alternative Behaviour: behaviour that is dissimilar to and can take the place of the
target behaviour as a desirable act, but the actions aren’t incompatible and can occur
- Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of an extinguished behaviour
o Main factor seems to be passage of time between periods of extinction
o Two conditions can lead to spontaneous recovery
Placing another behaviour on extinction can cause a previously extinguished
response to occur
May happen because antecedents that were present when the behaviour had
been reinforced in the past are present again.
- In renewal the main factor is context in which conditioning and extinction occurred
o If the behaviour occurs with certain external and internal stimuli present; and extinction
is carried out without them present; renewal may happen when extinction session
switches to a context that has stimuli that are either like those present in conditioning
or are new
- In reinstatement, the main factor leading to reappearance of extinguished behaviour is that
without performing the behaviour, the individual is exposed to the same stimuli that had
originally reinforced the behaviour
- Intermittent Reinforcement is more resistant to extinction than Continuous Reinforcement
- By reinforcing alternative or competing behaviours; we can reduce problems of extinction burst;
aggression by client; and spontaneous recovery
- Behaviour extinguishes faster when people are told their responses will no longer be reinforced.
Chapter 7: Punishment
- Natural Punisher: happen spontaneously as part of every day life naturally, not planned, or given
- Programmed Punisher: consequences that are planned and used systematically with goal of
decreasing behaviour
- Unconditioned Punisher: decrease a behaviour on which they are contingent even though they
were not learned (i.e. pain)
- Conditioned Punisher: stimuli that did not have the ability to suppress behaviour until they
developed this function through learning
- Reprimands: disapproving statements
- Overcorrection: punishment technique that requires person to engage in aversive activities that
correct or are the opposite of the undesirable target behaviour when the misbehaviour occurs
o Restitution: correcting the effects of misbehaviour and restoring the environment,
usually to a condition better than it was before the undesired behaviour
o Positive Practice: when misbehaviour occurs, the person must repeatedly perform an
appropriate or useful alternative behaviour or competing response to the misbehaviour
- Time-Out: moving person to an environment less reinforcing; can be fairly short, 15min is
usually effective, usually 1 minute per year of age
o Three kinds of timeout: isolation (removed from environment); Exclusion (removed
from opportunities for reinforcement); Non-exclusion (removed from reinforcement,
but not opportunities)
Chapter 8: Antecedents: Stimulus Control

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- Antecedents can have two functions: motivational (affects effectiveness of consequence for a
behaviour) and discriminative (distinguishing the stimulus from others because we have learned it lead
to a particular type of consequence
- Discriminative Stimulus: cue that sets the occasion for a particular response and signals that the
response will be followed by a particular consequence
- Establishing Operations: a procedure that increases the effectiveness of a particular consequence on
performance of a target behaviour, which enhances the motivational function of the antecedent
- Discrimination Training: teaching procedure where a consequence is administered or a particular
behaviour when a specific stimulus is present but not when another is present
- Stimulus Generalization: We respond in the same way we do for a discriminative stimulus for other
stimuli that are similar to the discriminative stimulus
- Stimulus Equivalence: two or more physically different stimuli come to serve the same purposes and
are used interchangeably.
- Generalization Gradient: The less similar the stimuli is from the discriminative, the less likely the target
behaviour will occur in presence of it.
- Stimulus Control: Extent to which an antecedent can influence the performance of a specific
o Several Factors influence the development of stimulus control
Paying attention to stimuli we are training as discriminative
Training stimulus is prominent
Task is straightforward enough
Contingencies stated in words the person can understand
Chapter 9: Motivation
- Motivation divided into two parts: Drives (unconditioned, biologically based) and Motives
(partially learned, socially and psychologically based)
- Motives can be specific or broad; Broad motives are like personality traits
- Desire to change is considered a motive
- Behaviour Analytic view focuses on ways to manipulate motivation as an antecedent
o Current approach began with journal article by Jack Michael in which he outlined set of
ideas on motivational functions of antecedents (early version of Establishing Operations)
- Motivating Operations
o Value-Altering Effect: changing effectiveness of consequence
o Behaviour-Altering Effect: changing the performance of behaviours
o Establishing Operation: increase effectiveness of reinforcer or punisher
o Abolishing Operation: decrease effectiveness of reinforcer or punisher
o Evocative Effect: Increases behaviour
o Abative Effect: Decrease Behaviour
- Unconditioned Motivating Operations: have inborn value-altering effects on consequences (not
learned; i.e. food and water deprivation are UMO)
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