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PSYB45H3 Study Guide - Behavior Modification, Human Behavior, Physical Therapy

Course Code
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapt e r 1
Introdu c ti o n to Beh a v i o r Modificati o n
Chap t e r Outlin e
Defining Hum an Behavior
Exam pl e s of Behavior
Defining Behavior Modificatio n
Char a c t e ristics of Beha vior Modificatio n
Historical Roots of Beh avior Modificatio n
Major Figures
Early Beh avior Modification Rese a rch e r s
Major Publicatio n s and Events
Areas of Application
Develo p m e n t al Disabilitie s
Mental Illnes s
Educ a tio n and Speci al Educati o n
Reha bilitation
Com m u ni t y Psycholo g y
Clinical Psycholo gy
Busine s s, Industry, an d Hum an Services
Self- m a n a g e m e n t
Child Manag e m e n t
Preve n ti o n
Sports Psychology
Health- Relate d Behaviors
Gero n t olo g y
The Struct u r e of This Textbook
Measu r e m e n t of Behavior and Behavior Chang e
Basic Principles of Behavior
Proced u r e s to Establish New Beh a vior
Proced u r e s to Increa s e Desira bl e Behavior and Decre a s e Unde sira bl e Behavior
Other Behavior Cha n g e Proced u r e s
Cha pt e r Sum m a r y
Key Terms
Practice Test
Cha pt e r 1, Quiz 1
Cha pt e r 1, Quiz 2
Cha pt e r 1, Quiz 3
Ide a s for Clas s Activi ti e s
1. Ask stud e n t s to shar e what they think beh a vior modificatio n is all about before reviewin g
the char a c t e ristic s of beh avi or modification in the chapt er.
2. Discu s s a few rese a rc h articles in which beh avior modifica tio n proce d u r e s were use d to
addr es s socially significan t probl e m s to illustra t e som e of the are a s of ap plicatio n of beh avi or

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Ans w e r s to Prac tic e Tes t Que s t i o n s
1. Behavior is what peopl e do and say. Beh avior involve s an individu als action s.
2. An exa m pl e of a des c ription of beh avior is: Jennifer screa m e d at her mot h er, ran upst air s, and
slam m e d th e door to her room. A label that may be applied to this beh avior is an g er.
3. The four physic al dim en s i o n s of beh avi or that can be observ e d and record e d are:
(1) freq u e n c y —the nu m b e r of times a beh a vior occurs; (2) durationth e tim e from when an
instan c e of the beh avior starts until it stop s; (3) intensityth e physic al force involve d in the
beh a vior; and late ncyth e time from som e stimul u s to the onset of the beh a vior.
4. Turning a light switch to the off position has an effect on the physical enviro n m e n t in that it
caus e s the light to go off. Asking a que s t ion has an effect on the social environ m e n t when
ano t h e r individu al provide s an ans w er to the ques tion .
5. To say that beh avior is lawful is to say that its occurr e nc e is syste m a t i cally influen c e d by
environ m e n t al eve nt s . A “functio n al relatio n s hi p refers to how our beh a vior is influenc e d by, or
occur s as a function of, environ m e n t al eve nt s .
6. An overt beh a vior is an action of an individu al that can be obs e rv e d and recor d e d by an
individu al othe r than the one eng a gi ng in the beh avi or. An exa m pl e of an overt be h avi or is
talking. Covert beh a vior s, on the other hand, are not obs erv a bl e to oth er s. For ex am pl e ,
thinking is a covert beh a vi or. This textbook will focus on be h avior mo dificatio n with overt
beh a vior s.
7. The six char ac t e ristic s of beh avior are as follows:
- Behavior is what peo pl e do and say
- Behaviors have one or more dim e n sion s
- Behaviors can be observ e d, describe d, and record e d
- Behaviors have an imp a c t on th e environ m e n t
- Behavior is lawful
- Behaviors ma y be overt or covert
8. Behavior modification is the applicatio n of basic principles origin ally derive d from
exp e ri m e n t a l rese a r ch with laborat o r y ani m al s .
9. Hum an beh a vi or is controlled by eve n t s in the imm e di at e environ m e n t. Howev er, a label
might be mistak e nl y identified as a caus e of beh a vior. A lab el is derived from obs erv a bl e
patt e r n s of beh a vior. For ex a m pl e, to say that an autistic child eng a g e s in proble m beh a vior s
bec au s e he is autistic is incorrect. Rather, the label of autis m is mad e bas e d on a patt er n of
beh a vior s obs erv e d in the child. The lab el cann o t be the cau s e of the beh avior bec au s e the label
doe s not exist as a physic al entity or eve nt.
10. By describin g beh avior modific atio n proc e d u r e s precis ely, rese a rch e r s and other
profe s sion al s mak e it more likely that the proce d u r e s will be used correctly eac h time to prod u ce
the de sir e d chan g e s in beh a vi or.
11. While beh avior modifica tion proce d u r e s are dev elop e d by profe s sion al s or para prof es si o n al s
traine d in be h avior modificati on, the proce d u r e s are often imple m e n t e d by peo pl e such as
tea c h e r s , pare n t s , job sup e r vi sors, or others .

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12. It is import a n t to me a s u r e beh avi or befor e and after beh a vior modifica tion proce d u r e s are
use d to docu m e n t the beh a vior chan g e resulting from the us e of the be h avior modificatio n
proce d u r e s.
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