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PSYB45 Chapter 1-10 Detailed Chapter notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 41 pages of the document.
Chapter
1
Intro
To
Behavior
M
odi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
D
e
f
i
ni
ng
Human
B
e
ha
vi
or
Human behavior
i
s
subject matter
of
behavior
m
odi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
C
ha
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
o
Behavior: what people do and say. D
e
s
c
r
i
be
d
with
a
c
t
i
on
verbs.
Not
a
st
a
t
i
c
c
ha
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
st
i
c
of
person.
I
d
e
nt
i
f
i
e
s
what person says
or
doe
s.
o
Behaviors have one
or
more
di
m
e
nsi
ons
o
Frequency: number
of
t
i
m
e
s
behavior
oc
c
u
r
s
o
Duration:
t
i
m
e
from
when
i
n
st
a
n
c
e
of
behavior starts
until it
s
t
ops
o
In
t
e
n
s i
t
y
Behaviors can be observed,
de
sc
r
i
be
d
and r
e
c
o
r
de
d
Occurrence can be
ob
se
r
ved
Behaviors have
i
m
pa
c
t
on
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
Occurrence has som e
e
ff
e
c
t
on environment
in
which
it
oc
c
ur
s
Behavior
i
s
l
a
w
f
ul
o
Occurrence
i
s
s
y
st
e
m
a
t
i
c
a
ll
y
i
nf
l
ue
nc
e
d
by
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
e
ve
nt
s
o
Basic
be
h
a
vi
or
a
l
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
de
sc
r
i
b
e
f
unc
t
i
ona
l
r
e
l
a
t
i
onshi
ps
between behavior
and
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
e
v
e
nt
s
o
P
r
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
de
sc
r
i
be
how behavior
i
s
i
nf
l
ue
nc
e
d
by,
or
occurs as
f
unc
t
i
on
of,
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
e
ve
nt
s
Behaviors may be overt
or
c
ov
e
r
t
o
Most often, behavior
m
odi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
proced ures are used
to
understand and change
overt
be
h
a
vi
or
s
o
Overt behavior:
a
c
t
i
on
that can be observed and recorded
by
person other than
one
e
ng
a
g
i
ng
in
be
h
a
vi
or
o
Covert behavior:
pr
i
va
t
e
events.
Not
observable
to
others
(thinking).
D
e
f
i
ni
ng
Behavior
Modi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
Behavior
Modi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on:
f
i
e
l
d
of
psychology concerned
with
a
na
l
y
z
i
ng
and
m
odi
f
y
i
ng
human
behavior
o
A
na
l
y
z
i
ng
:
i
de
nt
i
f
y
i
ng
f
un
c
t
i
ona
l
r
e
l
a
t
i
onshi
p
between
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events and
pa
r
t
i
c
ul
a
r
behaviour
to
un derstand reasons
for
behavior
or to
de
t
e
r
m
i
ne
why
perso n behaved
as they
did
o Modifying:
de
ve
l
opi
ng
and
i
m
pl
e
m
e
nt
i
ng
procedures
to
he
l
p
people change
t
he
i
r
behavior.
I
n
vol
ve
s
a
l
t
e
r
i
ng
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
even ts so as
to
i
nf
l
ue
nc
e
behavior. Behavior
m
odi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
procedures are
de
v
e
l
ope
d
by
pr
of
e
ssiona
l
s
and u sed
to
change
soc
i
a
ll
y
s
i
g
ni
f
i
c
a
nt
behaviors,
with
goa
l
of
i
mpr
ovi
ng
som e aspect
of
person’s
li
f
e
C
ha
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
of
Behavior
Modi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
Focus on
B
e
ha
vi
or
o
Behavior
m
od
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
procedures are designed
to
change behavior, not
pe
r
son
a
l
c
ha
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
st
i
c
or
t
r
a
i
t
.
o
Em phasizes
l
a
be
li
ng
1

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

o
B
e
ha
vi
or
a
l
excesses an d
de
f
i
c
i
t
s
are targets
for
change
with
behavior
m
odi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
pr
oc
e
du
r
e
s
o
Target behavior: behavior
to
be
m
ode
l
e
d
o
Behavioral
e
xc
e
ss
:
undesirable target behavior person wants
to
decrease
in
f
r
e
que
n
c
y
,
dur
a
t
i
on,
or
i
nt
e
nsi
t
y (smoking)
o
Behavioral deficit: desirable target behavior person wants
to
i
nc
r
e a
s
e
in
f
r
e
que
nc
y
,
dur
a
t
i
on,
or
i
nt
e
nsi
t
y (
e
x
e
r
c
i
s e
and
studying)
Procedures based on
be
h
a
vi
or
a
l
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
o
Behavior mod
i
s
a
ppl
i
c
a
t
i
on
of
basic
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
or
i
g
i
na
ll
y
de
r
i
ved
from
e
x
pe
r
i
m
e
nt
a
l
research
with
l
a
b
a
ni
m
a
l
s
o
Experimental
a
n
al
ysi
s
of behavior:
sc
i
e
nt
i
f
i
c
study
of
behavior
or
behavior
a
n
a
l
y
si
s.
o
Applied behavior
an
a
l
y s i
s
:
sc
i
e
nt
i
f
i
c
study
of
human behavior
i
s
c
a
ll
e
d
e
xpe
r
i
m
e
nt
a
l
a
na
l
y
si
s
of
human
be
h
a
vi
or
o
Behavior mod
procedures are based o n research
in
a
ppl
i
e
d
behavior
a
na
l
y
si
s
that
has be
e
n
conducted
for
more than 40 y
e a
r
s
Em phasis on current
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
e
ve
nt
s
o
Behavior mod
i
nvol
ve
s
assessin g and
m
odi
f
y
i
ng
current
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events that
a
r
e
f
un
c
t
i
ona
ll
y r
e
l
a
t
e
d
to
be
h
a
vi
or
.
o
Human behavior
i
s
c
ont
r
ol
l
e
d
by
events
in
i
mm
e
di
a
t
e
environment and
go
a
l
of
behavior mod
i
s
to
i
de
nt
i
f
y
tho se
e
v
e
nt
s
o
Controlling
var
i
ab
l
e
s
:
once
i
de
nt
i
f
i
e
d,
a
l
t
e
r
e
d
to
modify
be
h
a
vi
or
o
Successful behavior mod procedures
a
l
t
e
r
f
unc
t
i
ona
l
r
e
l
a
t
i
onshi
ps
between
behavior
a
nd
c
ont
r
ol
li
ng
va
r
i
a
bl
e
s
in
environment
to
produce a desired
chan g e
in
be
h
a
vi
or
.
o
S
om
e
t
i
m
e
s
l
a
be
l
s
m
i
st
a
ke
nl
y
i
de
nt
i
f
i
e
d
as c auses
of behavior
o
Cau se
of
behavior m ust be
f
ound
in
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
P
r
e
c
i
s e
de
sc
r
i
pt
i
on
of
behavior mod
pr
o
c
e
dur
e
s
o
Behavior mod procedures
i
nvol
ve
spe
c
i
f
i
c
chan ges
in
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events that are
functionally
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
to behavior
o To
be
e
ff
e
c
t
i
ve,
spe
c
i
f
i
c
changes
in
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events must occur each
t
i
m
e
o By
de
sc
r
i
bi
ng
procedures
pr
e
c
i
se
l
y
,
researchers and other
pr
of
e
ssiona
l
s
make
it
more
likely that
procedures
will
be u sed
c
o
rr
e
c
t
l
y
each
t
i
m
e
Treatment
i
m
pl
e
m
e
nt
e
d
by
people
in
everyday
li
f
e
o
Behavior m od procedures are
de
ve
l
ope
d
by
pr
of
e
ssiona
l
s
or
pa
r
a
p
r
of
e
ssiona
l
s
t
r
a
i
ne
d
in behavior
mod.
o
Behavior mod procedures often are
i
m
p
l
e
m
e
nt
e
d
by
people s uch as teachers,
paren ts,
job
supervisors,
or
others
to
he
l
p
people change
be
h
a
vi
or
Measurement
of
behavior
c
ha
ng
e
o
O ne
of
the
ha
ll
m
a
r
ks
i
s
em phasis on
m
e a
sur
i
ng
behavior
be
f
o
r
e
and
a
f
t
e
r
2

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

i
nt
e
r
ve
nt
i
on
to
document behavior change r
e
sul
t
i
ng
from
behavior mod
pr
oc
e
du
r
e
s
o
Ongoing assessmen t
of
behavior
i
s
done w
e
ll
beyond
po
i
nt
of
i
nt
e
rv
e
nt
i
on
to
de
t
e
r
m
i
ne
w
he
t
h
e
r
behavior change
i
s
m
a
i
nt
a
i
ne
d
in
l
ong
run.
De-em p hasis on past even ts as
causes
of behavior.
o
Behavior mod
p
l
a
c
e
s
em phasis on recent
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
even ts as cau ses
of
behavior.
o
K
now
l
e
dg
e
of
past
a
l
so
provides
u se
f
ul
info
about
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
to
c
ur
r
e
nt
be
h
a
vi
or
o
K
now
l
e
dg
e
of
current
c
ont
r
ol
li
ng
va
r
i
a
bl
e
s
i
s
most r
e
l
e
v
a
nt
to
de
ve
l
opi
ng
e
ff
e
c
t
i
ve
behavior
mod
i
nt
e
r
ve
nt
i
ons
becau se tho se
va
r
i
a
bl
e
s,
unl
i
ke
past events, can
still
c
h
a
nge
R
e
j
e
c
t
i
on
of
h
y
pot
he
t
i
c
a
l
unde
r
l
y
i
ng
cau ses
of behavior
o
Behavior mod r
e
j
e
c
t
s
h
y
pot
he
t
i
c
a
l
e
x
pl
a
na
t
i
ons
of behavior
o
Skinner has
c
a
ll
e
d
e
x
pl
a
na
t
i
ons
e
x
p
l
a
n
a
t
or
y fictions”
because they can
never be proved
or
disproved and thus
unsc
i
e
nt
i
f
i
c
.
H
i
st
or
i
c
a
l
Roots
of
Behavior
Modi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
Major
F
i
gur
e
s
I
v
a
n
P
a
vl
ov
o
Conducted
e
x
pe
r
i
m
e
nt
s
that uncovered basic processes
of
respondent
conditioning
o
Dem on strated that a r
e
f
l
e
x (
sa
li
va
t
i
on
in
response
to
f
ood
)
could be
c
ondi
t
i
one
d
to
ne
ut
r
a
l
stimulus
o
C
ondi
t
i
one
d
r
e
f
l
e
x
Edward
Thorndike
o Major
c
ont
r
i
but
i
on
was
de
sc
r
i
pt
i
on
of
l
a
w of
e
ff
e
c
t
o Law
of effect: behavior that produces
f
a
vour
a
bl
e
e
ff
e
c
t
on environment
i
s
more
likely to be
repe ated
in
the
f
utur
e
o
Pu t a cat
in
cage an d set
f
ood
outside cage w here
it
was
vi
s
i
bl
e
.
To
open door, cat
had
to hit
l
e
ve
r
.
Showed that cat
l
e a
r
n
e
d
to hit
l
e
ve
r
and open cage door. Each
t
i
m
e
it
was put
into
cage, cat
hit
l
e
ve
r
more qu
i
c
kl
y
because
behavior produced
f
a
vour
a
bl
e
e
ff
e
c
t
on
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
John
W
a
t
son
o
P
s
y
c
hol
o
gy
as th e
B
e
h
a
vi
or
i
st
V
i
e
w
s
I
t
o
Watson asserted
that observable behavior was proper
sub
j
e
c
t
matter
of
psychology and that
a
ll
behavior was c
ont
r
ol
l
e
d
by
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
e
ve
nt
s
o D
e
s
c
r
i
be
d
s
t
i
m
ul
us
response psycholo gy
in
which
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events
e
li
c
i
t
e
d
r
e
spons
e
s
o
Started movement c
a
ll
e
d
be
h
a
vi
or
i
sm
B.F.
S
ki
nne
r
o
Expanded
f
i
e
l
d
of behaviorism
o
Expl
a
i
ne
d
d
i
st
i
nc
t
i
on
between respondent
c
ondi
t
i
on
i
ng
and operant
conditioning
o
Research
e
l
a
bor
a
t
e
d
basic
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
of
operant
be
h
a
vi
or
o
Lab
research dem onstrated basic
be
h
a
vi
or
a
l
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
o
Wrote number
of
books
in
which he
a
ppl
i
e
d
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
of
behavior
a
n
a
l
y
si
s
to
human
behavior
3
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