PSYB45 Chapter 1-10 Detailed Chapter notes

87 views41 pages
Published on 16 Feb 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Chapter
1
Intro
To
Behavior
M
odi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
D
e
f
i
ni
ng
Human
B
e
ha
vi
or
Human behavior
i
s
subject matter
of
behavior
m
odi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
C
ha
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
o
Behavior: what people do and say. D
e
s
c
r
i
be
d
with
a
c
t
i
on
verbs.
Not
a
st
a
t
i
c
c
ha
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
st
i
c
of
person.
I
d
e
nt
i
f
i
e
s
what person says
or
doe
s.
o
Behaviors have one
or
more
di
m
e
nsi
ons
o
Frequency: number
of
t
i
m
e
s
behavior
oc
c
u
r
s
o
Duration:
t
i
m
e
from
when
i
n
st
a
n
c
e
of
behavior starts
until it
s
t
ops
o
In
t
e
n
s i
t
y
Behaviors can be observed,
de
sc
r
i
be
d
and r
e
c
o
r
de
d
Occurrence can be
ob
se
r
ved
Behaviors have
i
m
pa
c
t
on
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
Occurrence has som e
e
ff
e
c
t
on environment
in
which
it
oc
c
ur
s
Behavior
i
s
l
a
w
f
ul
o
Occurrence
i
s
s
y
st
e
m
a
t
i
c
a
ll
y
i
nf
l
ue
nc
e
d
by
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
e
ve
nt
s
o
Basic
be
h
a
vi
or
a
l
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
de
sc
r
i
b
e
f
unc
t
i
ona
l
r
e
l
a
t
i
onshi
ps
between behavior
and
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
e
v
e
nt
s
o
P
r
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
de
sc
r
i
be
how behavior
i
s
i
nf
l
ue
nc
e
d
by,
or
occurs as
f
unc
t
i
on
of,
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
e
ve
nt
s
Behaviors may be overt
or
c
ov
e
r
t
o
Most often, behavior
m
odi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
proced ures are used
to
understand and change
overt
be
h
a
vi
or
s
o
Overt behavior:
a
c
t
i
on
that can be observed and recorded
by
person other than
one
e
ng
a
g
i
ng
in
be
h
a
vi
or
o
Covert behavior:
pr
i
va
t
e
events.
Not
observable
to
others
(thinking).
D
e
f
i
ni
ng
Behavior
Modi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
Behavior
Modi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on:
f
i
e
l
d
of
psychology concerned
with
a
na
l
y
z
i
ng
and
m
odi
f
y
i
ng
human
behavior
o
A
na
l
y
z
i
ng
:
i
de
nt
i
f
y
i
ng
f
un
c
t
i
ona
l
r
e
l
a
t
i
onshi
p
between
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events and
pa
r
t
i
c
ul
a
r
behaviour
to
un derstand reasons
for
behavior
or to
de
t
e
r
m
i
ne
why
perso n behaved
as they
did
o Modifying:
de
ve
l
opi
ng
and
i
m
pl
e
m
e
nt
i
ng
procedures
to
he
l
p
people change
t
he
i
r
behavior.
I
n
vol
ve
s
a
l
t
e
r
i
ng
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
even ts so as
to
i
nf
l
ue
nc
e
behavior. Behavior
m
odi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
procedures are
de
v
e
l
ope
d
by
pr
of
e
ssiona
l
s
and u sed
to
change
soc
i
a
ll
y
s
i
g
ni
f
i
c
a
nt
behaviors,
with
goa
l
of
i
mpr
ovi
ng
som e aspect
of
person’s
li
f
e
C
ha
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
of
Behavior
Modi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
Focus on
B
e
ha
vi
or
o
Behavior
m
od
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
procedures are designed
to
change behavior, not
pe
r
son
a
l
c
ha
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
st
i
c
or
t
r
a
i
t
.
o
Em phasizes
l
a
be
li
ng
1
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o
B
e
ha
vi
or
a
l
excesses an d
de
f
i
c
i
t
s
are targets
for
change
with
behavior
m
odi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
pr
oc
e
du
r
e
s
o
Target behavior: behavior
to
be
m
ode
l
e
d
o
Behavioral
e
xc
e
ss
:
undesirable target behavior person wants
to
decrease
in
f
r
e
que
n
c
y
,
dur
a
t
i
on,
or
i
nt
e
nsi
t
y (smoking)
o
Behavioral deficit: desirable target behavior person wants
to
i
nc
r
e a
s
e
in
f
r
e
que
nc
y
,
dur
a
t
i
on,
or
i
nt
e
nsi
t
y (
e
x
e
r
c
i
s e
and
studying)
Procedures based on
be
h
a
vi
or
a
l
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
o
Behavior mod
i
s
a
ppl
i
c
a
t
i
on
of
basic
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
or
i
g
i
na
ll
y
de
r
i
ved
from
e
x
pe
r
i
m
e
nt
a
l
research
with
l
a
b
a
ni
m
a
l
s
o
Experimental
a
n
al
ysi
s
of behavior:
sc
i
e
nt
i
f
i
c
study
of
behavior
or
behavior
a
n
a
l
y
si
s.
o
Applied behavior
an
a
l
y s i
s
:
sc
i
e
nt
i
f
i
c
study
of
human behavior
i
s
c
a
ll
e
d
e
xpe
r
i
m
e
nt
a
l
a
na
l
y
si
s
of
human
be
h
a
vi
or
o
Behavior mod
procedures are based o n research
in
a
ppl
i
e
d
behavior
a
na
l
y
si
s
that
has be
e
n
conducted
for
more than 40 y
e a
r
s
Em phasis on current
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
e
ve
nt
s
o
Behavior mod
i
nvol
ve
s
assessin g and
m
odi
f
y
i
ng
current
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events that
a
r
e
f
un
c
t
i
ona
ll
y r
e
l
a
t
e
d
to
be
h
a
vi
or
.
o
Human behavior
i
s
c
ont
r
ol
l
e
d
by
events
in
i
mm
e
di
a
t
e
environment and
go
a
l
of
behavior mod
i
s
to
i
de
nt
i
f
y
tho se
e
v
e
nt
s
o
Controlling
var
i
ab
l
e
s
:
once
i
de
nt
i
f
i
e
d,
a
l
t
e
r
e
d
to
modify
be
h
a
vi
or
o
Successful behavior mod procedures
a
l
t
e
r
f
unc
t
i
ona
l
r
e
l
a
t
i
onshi
ps
between
behavior
a
nd
c
ont
r
ol
li
ng
va
r
i
a
bl
e
s
in
environment
to
produce a desired
chan g e
in
be
h
a
vi
or
.
o
S
om
e
t
i
m
e
s
l
a
be
l
s
m
i
st
a
ke
nl
y
i
de
nt
i
f
i
e
d
as c auses
of behavior
o
Cau se
of
behavior m ust be
f
ound
in
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
P
r
e
c
i
s e
de
sc
r
i
pt
i
on
of
behavior mod
pr
o
c
e
dur
e
s
o
Behavior mod procedures
i
nvol
ve
spe
c
i
f
i
c
chan ges
in
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events that are
functionally
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
to behavior
o To
be
e
ff
e
c
t
i
ve,
spe
c
i
f
i
c
changes
in
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events must occur each
t
i
m
e
o By
de
sc
r
i
bi
ng
procedures
pr
e
c
i
se
l
y
,
researchers and other
pr
of
e
ssiona
l
s
make
it
more
likely that
procedures
will
be u sed
c
o
rr
e
c
t
l
y
each
t
i
m
e
Treatment
i
m
pl
e
m
e
nt
e
d
by
people
in
everyday
li
f
e
o
Behavior m od procedures are
de
ve
l
ope
d
by
pr
of
e
ssiona
l
s
or
pa
r
a
p
r
of
e
ssiona
l
s
t
r
a
i
ne
d
in behavior
mod.
o
Behavior mod procedures often are
i
m
p
l
e
m
e
nt
e
d
by
people s uch as teachers,
paren ts,
job
supervisors,
or
others
to
he
l
p
people change
be
h
a
vi
or
Measurement
of
behavior
c
ha
ng
e
o
O ne
of
the
ha
ll
m
a
r
ks
i
s
em phasis on
m
e a
sur
i
ng
behavior
be
f
o
r
e
and
a
f
t
e
r
2
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i
nt
e
r
ve
nt
i
on
to
document behavior change r
e
sul
t
i
ng
from
behavior mod
pr
oc
e
du
r
e
s
o
Ongoing assessmen t
of
behavior
i
s
done w
e
ll
beyond
po
i
nt
of
i
nt
e
rv
e
nt
i
on
to
de
t
e
r
m
i
ne
w
he
t
h
e
r
behavior change
i
s
m
a
i
nt
a
i
ne
d
in
l
ong
run.
De-em p hasis on past even ts as
causes
of behavior.
o
Behavior mod
p
l
a
c
e
s
em phasis on recent
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
even ts as cau ses
of
behavior.
o
K
now
l
e
dg
e
of
past
a
l
so
provides
u se
f
ul
info
about
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
to
c
ur
r
e
nt
be
h
a
vi
or
o
K
now
l
e
dg
e
of
current
c
ont
r
ol
li
ng
va
r
i
a
bl
e
s
i
s
most r
e
l
e
v
a
nt
to
de
ve
l
opi
ng
e
ff
e
c
t
i
ve
behavior
mod
i
nt
e
r
ve
nt
i
ons
becau se tho se
va
r
i
a
bl
e
s,
unl
i
ke
past events, can
still
c
h
a
nge
R
e
j
e
c
t
i
on
of
h
y
pot
he
t
i
c
a
l
unde
r
l
y
i
ng
cau ses
of behavior
o
Behavior mod r
e
j
e
c
t
s
h
y
pot
he
t
i
c
a
l
e
x
pl
a
na
t
i
ons
of behavior
o
Skinner has
c
a
ll
e
d
e
x
pl
a
na
t
i
ons
e
x
p
l
a
n
a
t
or
y fictions”
because they can
never be proved
or
disproved and thus
unsc
i
e
nt
i
f
i
c
.
H
i
st
or
i
c
a
l
Roots
of
Behavior
Modi
f
i
c
a
t
i
on
Major
F
i
gur
e
s
I
v
a
n
P
a
vl
ov
o
Conducted
e
x
pe
r
i
m
e
nt
s
that uncovered basic processes
of
respondent
conditioning
o
Dem on strated that a r
e
f
l
e
x (
sa
li
va
t
i
on
in
response
to
f
ood
)
could be
c
ondi
t
i
one
d
to
ne
ut
r
a
l
stimulus
o
C
ondi
t
i
one
d
r
e
f
l
e
x
Edward
Thorndike
o Major
c
ont
r
i
but
i
on
was
de
sc
r
i
pt
i
on
of
l
a
w of
e
ff
e
c
t
o Law
of effect: behavior that produces
f
a
vour
a
bl
e
e
ff
e
c
t
on environment
i
s
more
likely to be
repe ated
in
the
f
utur
e
o
Pu t a cat
in
cage an d set
f
ood
outside cage w here
it
was
vi
s
i
bl
e
.
To
open door, cat
had
to hit
l
e
ve
r
.
Showed that cat
l
e a
r
n
e
d
to hit
l
e
ve
r
and open cage door. Each
t
i
m
e
it
was put
into
cage, cat
hit
l
e
ve
r
more qu
i
c
kl
y
because
behavior produced
f
a
vour
a
bl
e
e
ff
e
c
t
on
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
John
W
a
t
son
o
P
s
y
c
hol
o
gy
as th e
B
e
h
a
vi
or
i
st
V
i
e
w
s
I
t
o
Watson asserted
that observable behavior was proper
sub
j
e
c
t
matter
of
psychology and that
a
ll
behavior was c
ont
r
ol
l
e
d
by
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
e
ve
nt
s
o D
e
s
c
r
i
be
d
s
t
i
m
ul
us
response psycholo gy
in
which
e
nvi
r
onm
e
nt
a
l
events
e
li
c
i
t
e
d
r
e
spons
e
s
o
Started movement c
a
ll
e
d
be
h
a
vi
or
i
sm
B.F.
S
ki
nne
r
o
Expanded
f
i
e
l
d
of behaviorism
o
Expl
a
i
ne
d
d
i
st
i
nc
t
i
on
between respondent
c
ondi
t
i
on
i
ng
and operant
conditioning
o
Research
e
l
a
bor
a
t
e
d
basic
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
of
operant
be
h
a
vi
or
o
Lab
research dem onstrated basic
be
h
a
vi
or
a
l
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
o
Wrote number
of
books
in
which he
a
ppl
i
e
d
pr
i
nc
i
pl
e
s
of
behavior
a
n
a
l
y
si
s
to
human
behavior
3
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Document Summary

Human behavior is subject matter of behavior modification. Characteristics: behavior: what people do and say. Identifies what person says or does: behaviors have one or more dimensions, frequency: number of times behavior occurs, duration: time from when instance of behavior starts until it stops. Occurrence has som e effect on environment in which it occurs. Behavior is lawful: occurrence is systematically influenced by environmental events, basic behavioral principles describe functional relationships between behavior and environmental events, principles describe how behavior is influenced by, or occurs as function of, environmental events. Behaviors may be overt or covert: most often, behavior modification procedures are used to understand and change overt behaviors, overt behavior: action that can be observed and recorded by person other than, covert behavior: private events. Not observable to others (thinking). one engaging in behavior. Involves altering environmental events so as to influence behavior.

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