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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Ch 13-psyb45
All about helping a person increase a desirable behavior or decrease an
undesirable behavior.
The first step is to understand why the person engages in the behavior. To do
so you must conduct an assessment to determine the events that evoke the
behavior and the reinforcing consequences that maintain it. Identify these
variables before treating a problem behavior is called functional assessment
The treatment helped Jacob replace the undesirable behavior with a desirable
behavior.
Understanding problem behaviors through functional assessment
The treatment helped Jacob replace the undesirable behavior with a desirable
behavior. Conducting a functional assessment is always the first step in using
behavior modification procedures to decrease problem behaviors.
Defining functional assessment
To identify the function of the problem behavior: functional assessment.
Four broad classes of reinforcing consequences or functions of problem behavior:
Social positive reinforcement
Positively reinforcing consequence is delivered by another person after the target
behavior, it is called social positive reinforcement.
Social negative reinforcement
When another person terminates an aversive interaction, task or activity after
occurrence of a target behavior, the behavior is said to maintained by social negative
reinforcement.
Automatic positive reinforcement
When the behavior produces a reinforcing consequence automatically, the behavior
is said to be maintained by automatic positive reinforcement.
Ex: going to the kitchen to get a drink is automatically positively reinforced by
getting the drink.
automatic negative reinforcement
automatic negative reinforcement occurs when the target behavior automatically
reduces or eliminates an aversive stimulus as a consequence of the behavior.
Closing the window to block a cold draft involves automatic negative reinforcement.
Functional assessment methods
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Methods used to conduct functional assessment 3 categories:
-indirect assessment: where information is gathered through interviews and
questionnaires
-direct observation methods: observer records the antecedents, behavior and
consequences as they occur.
-experimental methods: where antecedents and consequences are manipulated to
observe their effect on the problem behavior.
Indirect methods
It is known as informant assessment methods. Provides information in response to
assessment questions. Easy to conduct and do not take much time. Disadvantage is
informants must rely on their memory of the events. Thus information may be
incorrect as a result of forgetting or bias.
The interview is the most common assessment method. Information about the
problem behavior, antecedents, and consequences should describe environmental
events.
The goal of a behavioral interview is to generate information on the problem
behaviors antecendents, consequences and other variables that will permit you to
form a hypothesis about controlling variables for the problem.
Once the interviewer can discern a reliable pattern of antecedents and
consequences, the interviewer can develop a hypothesis about the antecedents that
have stimulus control over the problem behavior and the reinforce that maintains it.
Because indirect functional assessment methods have the disadvantage of relying
on informants memories of events, researchers suggest using multiple functional
assessment methods to produce the most accurate information on antecedents,
consequences and other variables.
Direct observation methods
Direct observation methods, a person observes and records the antecedents and
records the antecedents and consequences each time the problem behavior occurs.
The antecedents and consequences are observed and recorded in the natural
environment where the problem behavior typically takes place. Direct observation
assessment is also called ABC observation. the goal is to record the immediate
antecedents and consequences typically associated with the problem behavior under
normal conditions.
Main advantages is the observer is recording the antecedents and consequences as
they occur rather than reporting the antecedents and consequences from memory.
Disadvantage is it takes more time and effort than interview or questionnaire
methods. ABC observations do not demonstrate a functional relationship but rather
a correlation f the antecendents and consequences with the problem behavior. To
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Description
Ch 13-psyb45 All about helping a person increase a desirable behavior or decrease an undesirable behavior. The first step is to understand why the person engages in the behavior. To do so you must conduct an assessment to determine the events that evoke the behavior and the reinforcing consequences that maintain it. Identify these variables before treating a problem behavior is called functional assessment The treatment helped Jacob replace the undesirable behavior with a desirable behavior. Understanding problem behaviors through functional assessment The treatment helped Jacob replace the undesirable behavior with a desirable behavior. Conducting a functional assessment is always the first step in using behavior modification procedures to decrease problem behaviors. Defining functional assessment To identify the function of the problem behavior: functional assessment. Four broad classes of reinforcing consequences or functions of problem behavior: Social positive reinforcement Positively reinforcing consequence is delivered by another person after the target behavior, it is called social positive reinforcement. Social negative reinforcement When another person terminates an aversive interaction, task or activity after occurrence of a target behavior, the behavior is said to maintained by social negative reinforcement. Automatic positive reinforcement When the behavior produces a reinforcing consequence automatically, the behavior is said to be maintained by automatic positive reinforcement. Ex: going to the kitchen to get a drink is automatically positively reinforced by getting the drink. automatic negative reinforcement automatic negative reinforcement occurs when the target behavior automatically reduces or eliminates an aversive stimulus as a consequence of the behavior. Closing the window to block a cold draft involves automatic negative reinforcement. Functional assessment methods www.notesolution.com
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