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Midterm

midterm notes

41 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Behavior modification midterm
LECTURE 1
Behaviour – what people do and say
-Activity at any level – muscle, gland and electrical activity!
-Can use fMRI to see if a behaviour changed by looking at brain activity
Behaviour is NOT
-Static- it is NOT A STATE – eg being angry is not a behavior
-Screaming IS a behaviour – a product of the state of being angry
Behaviour is a PROCESS – not the product
-can be observed, described and recorded
-has an impact on the ENVIRONMENT (physical or social – can have an
impact on others)
PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS
-DURATION, FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY of the behaviour – can be
measured and recorded
-Can be used to guage improvement
-Duration = length of time the behaviour occurred for, frequency = how often it
occurred, intensity = how intense the behaviour was
BEHAVIOR IS LAWFUL – THERE IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE
BEHAVIOR AND THE ENVIRONMENT
-can be OVERT OR COVERT
-overt = visible to others, covert = not visible to others
behaviour is
1. actions not labels – eg raising hand, placing in mouth, biting off a segment of nail
on the 3rd finger – NOT nail biting
2. physical dimension – frequency duration and intensity
3. can be observed, described and recorded
4. have impacts on the environment (physical or social)
5. LAWFUL
6. overt or covert
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
-analyzing and modifying human behaviour
-applications of principles and techniques to assess and improve behaviors to
enhance human functioning
behavioural excess/deficits
-emphasis on CURRENT EVENTS
www.notesolution.com
-antecedents, behaviour and consequences – NOT FREUDIAN – FREUD
FOCUSSED ON THE PAST – NO WAY TO SCIENTIFICALLY DISPROVE
THE THEORIES BY FREUD
ABC PHENOMENON
Antecedent – behaviour – consequence
-largely influenced by the antecedent and environment we are in
-antecedents influence our behaviour
behaviour modification is applied largely to CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL
DISABILITES
-procedures to change behaviour are CLEARLY DESCRIBED AND PLANNED
OUT
-REJECT THE UNDERLYING CAUSES OF BEHAVIOR – don’t look to
EXPLAIN the behaviour because that can’t be objectively ascertained
-Behaviour modification occurs NATURALLY by regular people
HISTORY
IVAN PAVLOV
-gastric function of an animal – measured saliva from a dog and what increased
production
-dog salivated when experimenter entered the room – associated the experimenter
with food
CONDITIONED REFLEX – using this idea developed RESPONDENT (CLASSICAL)
CONDITIONING
EDWARD THORNDIKE
-law of effect – behaviours that have a positive (favourable) effect on the
environment are more likely to be repeated
-OPERANT CONDITIONING – change behaviour by changing the
environment
JOHN WATSON
-father of behaviourism
-behaviour is ONLY controlled by the environment – said that the mind plays no
part
-STIMULUS-RESPONSE PSYCHOLOGY – an event in the environment is what
leads to a response by the individual
Little albert experiments
www.notesolution.com
-baby – could instill fear – teach fear to the baby – condition him to be afraid of
certain stimuli, and UN TEACH the behaviour
BF SKINNER
-advanced behaviourism
-the FATHER OF BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
-made a discrimination between operant and respondent (classical)
conditioning
SKINNER BOX
-rat on electrified grid – press button, shocks stop or the rat gets food
-correlate: CASINOS – same thing! – organism acts on object in hopes of a reward
Application
-developmental disabilites – have a need for behaviour midifcation
-mental illness
-clinical and counselling psychology
-education, special education
-community psychology – eg recycling, trying to make social changes – eg
drinking and driving and getting people to stop at stop signs
-amnesia disorders – need to remember to take meds at a certain time, teach people
to write things down to remind them later – neuropsych rehab
business and industry – improve morale and productivity
self management – improving your behaviours – studying and learning
parenting and child management – classes or at home – learning, eating dinner, tantrums
sports – modify procedures taken to increase chance of winning
health psychology and behavioural medicine – intervention to disease by behaviour – eg
stop smoking, increase fitness, proper diet
gerontology – elderly susceptible to illness – parkinsons, HD, strokes
prevention -
OBSERVING AND RECORDING BEHAVIOR
Behavioural ASSESSMENT
-indirect or direct
INDIRECT - interview, quiestionnaire, rating scales
DIRECT – observe, record the target behaviour AS IT IS BEING DONE ( IN VIVO) –
more accurate but not always possible
Indirect – relies on the memory of the person you are interviewing/ questionnaire
may be LESS ACCURATE than a direct approach
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Behavior modification midterm LECTURE 1 Behaviour what people do and say - Activity at any level muscle, gland and electrical activity! - Can use fMRI to see if a behaviour changed by looking at brain activity Behaviour is NOT - Static- it is NOT A STATE eg being angry is not a behavior - Screaming IS a behaviour a product of the state of being angry Behaviour is a PROCESS not the product - can be observed, described and recorded - has an impact on the ENVIRONMENT (physical or social can have an impact on others) PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS - DURATION, FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY of the behaviour can be measured and recorded - Can be used to guage improvement - Duration = length of time the behaviour occurred for, frequency = how often it occurred, intensity = how intense the behaviour was BEHAVIOR IS LAWFUL THERE IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE BEHAVIOR AND THE ENVIRONMENT - can be OVERT OR COVERT - overt = visible to others, covert = not visible to others behaviour is 1. actions not labels eg raising hand, placing in mouth, biting off a segment of nail rd on the 3 finger NOT nail biting 2. physical dimension frequency duration and intensity 3. can be observed, described and recorded 4. have impacts on the environment (physical or social) 5. LAWFUL 6. overt or covert BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION - analyzing and modifying human behaviour - applications of principles and techniques to assess and improve behaviors to enhance human functioning behavioural excessdeficits - emphasis on CURRENT EVENTS www.notesolution.com - antecedents, behaviour and consequences NOT FREUDIAN FREUD FOCUSSED ON THE PAST NO WAY TO SCIENTIFICALLY DISPROVE THE THEORIES BY FREUD ABC PHENOMENON Antecedent behaviour consequence - largely influenced by the antecedent and environment we are in - antecedents influence our behaviour behaviour modification is applied largely to CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITES - procedures to change behaviour are CLEARLY DESCRIBED AND PLANNED OUT - REJECT THE UNDERLYING CAUSES OF BEHAVIOR dont look to EXPLAIN the behaviour because that cant be objectively ascertained - Behaviour modification occurs NATURALLY by regular people HISTORY IVAN PAVLOV - gastric function of an animal measured saliva from a dog and what increased production - dog salivated when experimenter entered the room associated the experimenter with food CONDITIONED REFLEX using this idea developed RESPONDENT (CLASSICAL) CONDITIONING EDWARD THORNDIKE - law of effect behaviours that have a positive (favourable) effect on the environment are more likely to be repeated - OPERANT CONDITIONING change behaviour by changing the environment JOHN WATSON - father of behaviourism - behaviour is ONLY controlled by the environment said that the mind plays no part - STIMULUS-RESPONSE PSYCHOLOGY an event in the environment is what leads to a response by the individual Little albert experiments www.notesolution.com - baby could instill fear teach fear to the baby condition him to be afraid of certain stimuli, and UN TEACH the behaviour BF SKINNER - advanced behaviourism - the FATHER OF BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION - made a discrimination between operant and respondent (classical) conditioning SKINNER BOX - rat on electrified grid press button, shocks stop or the rat gets food - correlate: CASINOS same thing! organism acts on object in hopes of a reward Application - developmental disabilites have a need for behaviour midifcation - mental illness - clinical and counselling psychology - education, special education - community psychology eg recycling, trying to make social changes eg drinking and driving and getting people to stop at stop signs - amnesia disorders need to remember to take meds at a certain time, teach people to write things down to remind them later neuropsych rehab business and industry improve morale and productivity self management improving your behaviours studying and learning parenting and child management classes or at home learning, eating dinner, tantrums sports modify procedures taken to increase chance of winning health psychology and behavioural medicine intervention to disease by behaviour eg stop smoking, increase fitness, proper diet gerontology elderly susceptible to illness parkinsons, HD, strokes prevention - OBSERVING AND RECORDING BEHAVIOR Behavioural ASSESSMENT - indirect or direct INDIRECT - interview, quiestionnaire, rating scales DIRECT observe, record the target behaviour AS IT IS BEING DONE ( IN VIVO) more accurate but not always possible Indirect relies on the memory of the person you are interviewing questionnaire may be LESS ACCURATE than a direct approach www.notesolution.com
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