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PSYB51H3 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Vocal Tract, Habituation, Soltyrei


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB51H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
PSYB51H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 9 Hearing: Physiology and Psychoacoustics
1
Sound Created when objects vibrate
Viratio of the ojet auses oleules i the ojet’s surroudig ediu to irate as ell,
which causes pressure changes in the medium
The pressure changes are longitudinal in direction
Speed of Sound depends on the density of the medium
o Air ~ 340m/s
o Water ~ 1500m/s
Qualities of Sound Waves
Amplitude (Loudness) Magnitude of displacement of a sound pressure wave
Loudness The psychological aspect of sound related to perceived intensity or magnitude
Intensity Amount of sound energy falling on a unit area
Measured in Decibels Sound Pressure Level (dB SPL)
Decibels Ratio between the pressure of some sound and the pressure of a reference sound
(P0)
dB = 20*log(P/P0)
Frequency for sound, the number of times per second that a pattern if pressure repeats
Measured in Hz = 1/s
Associated with Pitch
Pitch Psychological aspect of sound related to the fundamental frequency
Low Pitch = Tuba
High Pitch = Piccolo
Humans can hear across a wide range of sound intensities
Human Range: 10-150 dB
Ratio between faintest and loudest sounds is more than 1:1,000,000
What is Sound?
Interactions between amplitude and frequency
Human hearing uses a limited range of frequencies: 20-20,000 Hz
Sine Wave (Pure Tone) Waveform for which variation as a function of time is a sine function
Complex Sounds Most sounds in the world
E.g., Human Voices, Birds, Cars, etc.
All sounds can be described as some combination of sine waves
Can be described by Fourier Analysis
Spectrum A representation of the relative energy present at each frequency
Shows the amount of energy belonging to the different sounds in a complex sound
Harmonic Spectrum Typically caused by a simple vibrating source where the frequency of its
components are integer multiples of the lowest frequency
Fundamental Frequency The lowest frequency component of a sound (=1st Harmonic)
Timbre Accounts for the differences in sound when the pitch and loudness are the same
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Lecture 9 Hearing: Physiology and Psychoacoustics
2
Anatomy of the Ear
Outer Ear:
Sounds are collected from the environment by the Pinna
Soundwaves are funneled by the Pinna into the Ear Canal
Ear Canal’s length and shape enhances sound frequencies
Main purpose of the Ear Canal is to insulate the structure at its end Tympanic Membrane
Tympanic Membrane vibrates in response to sound
Middle Ear
Comprises of 3 Ossicles (Bones) Smallest bones in the body
1. Malleus
2. Incus
3. Stapes
Enhance sound via lever mechanism and focusing pressure
on a smaller area
Stapes transmits vibrations of sound waves to the Oval
Window
Muscles attached to the Ossicles reduce loud sounds
Inner Ear
Fine changes in sound pressure are translated into Neural Signals
Contains the Cochlea
Cochlea Spiral structure of the inner ear containing the
Organ of Corti
Filled with watery fluids in 3 parallel canals
Middle Canal is surrounded by the Vestibular
Canal and the Tympanic Canal
o The Canals are separated by membranes
Organ of Corti sits on top of the Basilar
Membrane, covered by the Tectorial Membrane
Vibrations transmitted through the Tympanic Membrane
and Middle-Ear Bones cause the Stapes to push and pull
the flexible Oval Window in and out of the Vestibular
Canal at the base of the Cochlea
If sounds are extremely intense, any remaining
pressure is transmitted through the Helicotrma Canal and back to the Cochlear Base through
the Tympanic Canal where it is absorbed by another membrane, the Round Window
Organ of Corti
Sound waves transformed into movements of the Ossicles, which cause movements of the
Cochlear Partition which then are translated into Neural Signals by structures within the Organ
of Corti which extends along the top of the basilar membrane
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