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[PSYB51H3] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 34 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB51H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSC
PSYB51H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PSYB51: Sensation & Perception
Chapter 1: Introduction
January 5, 2017
Wei Luo
SENSATION & PERCEPTION
We only have our own access of feeling the sensation we feel in our experiences
SENSATION The ability to detect the touch or the pressure of a finger that may turn into a private experience
PERCEPTION The act of giving meaning and / or purpose to those that detected sensations
When it comes to an example of someone’s fingers running down your back, what does the meaning of that feeling
mean?
o According to philosophers, everything we think, feel and do depends on our sensation and perceptions
A philosopher, Etienne Bonnot de Condillac (1715 1780) gave his audience a well written example
In this example, he asked his audience to imagine a statue without senses, and to then imagine
if the statue magically got his or her sense of smell which then can develop a mental life
o This example shows that our sensation or sense can create many experiences or per
say information we rely on based on our senses
o Sensation and perception can be explained thoroughly through five scientific
methods:
1. Method 1: Thresholds
We limited used of sensation and perception in our live
o E.g. ask yourself what is the loudest and safest sound that you hear?
If you go overboard of hearing the loudest and safest sound, you will damage your auditory system
o Our perception is limited since people cannot look at every single perspective, they can be bias to one another
In other words, we tend to have limits to both sensation and perception
2. Method 2: Scaling Measuring Private Experience
When you say that you can hear or taste something that you only can experience, a term for this situation is called
Qualia
QUALIA In philosophy, it is a term where we ourselves can only have conscious experiences of sensation or perception
We have no way of experiencing what others are experiences, however, we can determine what they are experiencing
3. Method 3: Signal Detection Theory Measuring Difficult Decisions
In this method, it discusses how our perceptual decision can be very difficult that can contain real consequences
4. Method 4: Sensory Neuroscience
Our sensory experiences with receptors and nerves can determine our perceptual experience
5. Method 5: Neuroimaging An Image of the Mind
Say a researcher did an experience on you when looking at two different images at the same time
o One eye looking at a house and the other eye looking at a face
The results of this experience will be known as Binocular Rivalry
The results will show how your perception can be very dominate
This is because one eye may want to see just the house or the other eye wants to see the face
instead
The Binocular Rivalry is a way for us experience separation of the stimuli to the eyes as well
as your perceptual experience
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THRESHOLDS & THE DAWN OF PSYCHOPHYSICS
The study of sensation and perception is a mix of both science and philosophy
A famous scientists-philosopher Gustav Fechner was the somewhat first founder of experimental psychology
o However, the true given first founder would usually be given to Wilhelm Wundt
Fechner suffered eye damage from looking at the sun too often which then fell into depression
During the pass few years, he magically started to recover his vision quickly
This miracle led Fechner believing that there is a relationship between mind and matter,
meaning there was a relationship between Dualism and Materialism
DUALISM The mind is its own separation from the material world of the body
MATERIALISM The only things that exist is the existence of matter and that our mind and consciousness results these sorts
of matter; the mind is not separate since it is link the matter (producing certain behaviour)
Fechner believes our mind exists for all property of matter, therefore all matter has consciousness which can be called
Panpsychism
PANPSYCHISM Our mind exists to all property of matter, meaning that all matter has consciousness; in other words, our
behaviours are produce consciously from the top of our mind to all humans, animals or inanimate things
Fechner describes Panpsychism from a book called Nanna or Concerning the Mental Life of Plants
Fechner proposed a relationship between the spiritual and material worlds: mind and body through using mathematics
o To test out this relationship he experiences this theory between the relation of sensation (mind) and the energy
(matter)
He called this method and theory Psychophysics (psycho for mind & physics for matter)
PSYCHOPHYSICS The numbers of relationships between physical and psychological events (mind and matter)
Fechner was inspired by one his colleagues, Ernst Weber that was interested with the sense of touch
o Weber tested out the accuracy of touch through mathematics by using a device, like a compass
When using the device, he would measure the smallest distance between the two points that is
required for a person to touch another thing with just two points
Weber called this theory of distance between two points, Two Point Touch Threshold
TWO-POINT TOUCH THRESHOLD The minimum distant of two points when touching
Fechner recorded an experiment that Weber had conducted
o Weber would ask people to lift a standard weight, a weight that will stay the same for the whole experiment
and another weight that is different from their original weight
o Weber increased or decreased the weight by intervals throughout the experiment
According to the results, people are able to detect a small difference between the original weight was
lighter than the comparison weight
However, when the original weight was heavier than the comparison weight, people were not
able to detect a small difference
Instead people needed a larger change when detecting the changes
Weber called the difference required for detecting a change in weight the Just
Noticeable Difference (JND) or Difference Threshold
JUST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE (JND) OR DIFFERENCE THRESHOLD The smallest detectable difference
between two stimuli or the minimum changes in a stimulus that can be detected
Weber noticed that there are some changes with the JND
o To detect the smallest change in weight, it must always be close to one fortieth of the original weight
Therefore, to test if the original weight was 40grams, the smallest change to detect must be at least 1
gram
Or if the original weight was 400grams, the smallest change to detect must be at least 10
grams
o Other than weight, Weber also tested out the changes with lengths of two lines
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