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[PSYB51H3] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (61 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB51H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSC
PSYB51H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PSYB51 Lecture 1 Introduction
Exams
Multiple choice questions on final exam are cumulative, short answer questions are not
o Final exam Part 1: 20 multiple choice questions cover lectures 1-4 (10%)
o Final part 2: 20 multiple choice questions cover lectures 5-8 (10%)
o Final part 3: 30 MCQs plus 4/5 SAQs (30%)
Today’s Lecture
Important concepts and questions in modern psychology are rooted in ancient philosophy.
What is reality? It has a lot to do with what we perceive
o That determines what is our reality
o What is real? How do you define real? If you’re talking aout what you an feel, what
you can smell, what you can taste and see, then real is simply electrical signals
interpreted y your rain. This is the world that you know. —Morpheus’ aser to Neo
in The Matrix, 1999
Everything changes (and only change matters)
o Especially for perception Perception is about change perceiving
Sensation means colliding atoms
Is the mind separate from the body?
Can we measure the mind?
What does early philosophy teach us about perception?
The nativism and empiricism of knowledge
o Dualism vs. materialism
What is psychophysics?
Biology of perception
Neuroscience methods
Some Animals Are Able to Sense Stimuli That Humans Cannot
Snakes can sense infrared light
Dogs have very good hearing and very good sense of smell
Ecolocation: animals emit calls out to the environment and listen to the echoes of those calls
that return from various objects near them
Early Philosophy of Perception
Plato’ s The Allegor of the Cae 
BCE)
o Illustrates how in his mind we
perceive the world
o We are chained up prisoners
born and kept in a cave
o We’re haied so that our aks
are against a wall closer to the
exit
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o We face towards the back wall of the cave, where we see shadows of objects that can
be found behind the wall
o The fire from outside casts the shadows we perceive to be real, since we have never
seen the actual objects
o What this illustrates Your conception of reality is critically dependent on information
gathered through our senses
o The Matrix is inspired by this allegory
Perception and your sense of reality are the products of evolution:
o Survival
o Importance of type of energy in the environment determines which senses have
developed (ex. Light, sound energy)
o We might not sese the etire realit ut e proal do’t eed to orr too uh
Plato: Our understanding of reality is restricted to things that we can perceive
o It’s ot a ig deal that e aot pereie a lot of thigs
Heraclitus (540 BCE: You a eer step ito the sae rier tie.
o panta rhei: everything flows
o Idea that perceiver cannot perceive the same event in exactly the same manner each
time; Perception changes all the time
Experience/Learning Something we form all the time from our perception
Adaptation What you see or hear before will influence how you perceive
something later on
Change Change in time and space
Contrast
o The seod tie ou step ito the rier o’t e the sae as the first time because you
influenced the river the first time, and because the river constantly flows
Adaptation: A reduction in response caused by prior or continuing stimulation
o Blue and yellow demo: Stare at
the dot between the blue and
yellow bars for a few seconds,
then stare at the dot on the
a’s ose
As you look at the photo
of the baby, you may
have not noticed that
half of the photo has a
bluish tint and the other
half a yellowish tint
o Faces demo: Is the middle face a
female face or a male face?
Whether ou thik it’s a
man or woman depends
on which of the other
faces you were looking
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