PSYB57H3 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Implicit Memory, Prototype Theory, Autobiographical Memory

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Published on 5 Oct 2016
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PSYB57H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 6: Interconnections between Acquisition and Retrieval
Retrieve: recall or recognize
Connections made when learning newly acquired material serve as retrieval paths
Context-dependent learning:
Godden & Baddeley: scuba divers learn various materials > while sitting on dry land, 20 ft
underwater via hearing > half of each group tested above water, other half below > retrieval
advantage if learning and test circumstances match
Smith et al.: same pattern if learning and testing take place in different rooms. Twist: students
tested in different room than learning but were urged to think about learning room > performed
as well as those with no room change. Therefore psychological context matters, not physical
Context reinstatement: improved performance when context in place during learning is recreated.
Context only has an effect because it influences how you think about material
Fisher & Craik: word pairs > learn second word in each pair and use first word as an aid > half of
pairs, context words were semantically associated with target word (cat/dog) to encourage
thinking about meaning while other pair rhymed (cat/hat) to encourage thinking about sound >
during test, participants given hint (retrieval cue) > cue was either to focus on meaning or sound
> advantage of meaning & matched conditions. Match effect better than level-of-processing
effect, such that deep unmatched (17%) is inferior to shallow matched (26%)
Connections change meaning of what is remember
read target words in two contexts (e.g. lifted piano/tuned piano; target word recorded as either
heavy/musical instrument) > measure differences in memory context > lifted sentence led to
recall of target word when cued with 'something heavy' > cue was effective only if congruent
with stored memory
Encoding specificity: what you encode is specific to not only the physical stimulus but also the
stimulus in combination with the context. If we learn 'other' we would reply no if asked if we
encountered 'the' or 'he.' Even if they are part of 'other' we learn as a whole
Learning is an integrated experience, including the stimuli, as the perceiver understood it
Memory network: nodes + associative links
Node activation > energy spread > activation level increase at node > reach threshold > fires >
serves as source for further activation, spreading through network (spreading activation)+ draw
attention to self
Subthreshold activations: accumulate and summate to bring node to threshold
Activation spreadings from starting point in all directions simultaneously
Memory cues and context reinstatement relies on the theory of subthreshold activations, that
insufficient activations can combine to activate target node
Lexical decision tasks > show letter sequences > word/non-words > yes if word > speed of
response indexed as how quickly they can locate word in memory
Meyer & Sch: pairs of letter strings (house, fime) either semantically related or not > yes if both
strings are words > trials with related words produce semantic priming > faster responding rate
(100 ms)
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Complications of spreading activations: we have some degree of control over starting points of
memory searches (reasoning. Executive control), we can shut down spread
Source memory: source of current knowledge, independent of familiarity (remember v.s. know)
Subsequent familiarity/know effects: rhinal cortex (during learning), anterior parahippocampus
Subsequent recollection/remember effect: hippocampus
Lexical decisions quicker if test words were recently seen (repetition priming), which occurs
even when participants have no recollection of having encountered stimulus word previously.
However, directly testing this (recognition procedure) will likely show that performance is
random
Word-stem completion: more likely to offer specific word if previously encountered though
conscious memory of encounter is absent
Attention to meaning > explicit memory > direct memory testing (recall, standard recognition
tasks)
Perceptual contact > implicit memory: indirect memory testing (lexical decision, word-stem)
Jacoby: encountered words in 3 settings: no context (read aloud > poor explicit, good implicit),
generate (produce word with anatomy, encourage meaning > good explicit, poor implicit),
context (intermediate results)
False Fame, Jacoby et al: read list of names (unaware of memory test) > given new list and asked
to rate according to fame (real famous, real non-famous, fictitious) > second list presented
immediately of following 24-hr delay > immediate testing = source + familiarity > judgments of
fame come from the way participants interpreted their feelings of recognition (familiarity vague
and open to interpretation)
Participants in 24-hr delay forgot real source > filled bogus source > more likely to rate made-up
names as famous
Begg & Anas: participants judged how interesting statements were > presented with more
sentences to judge credibility > familiarity increased credibility even when warned not to believe
first list sentences
In alternate procedure, participants told half statements were made by men/women > told
women's always true, men always false > rate interest and credibility. Statements plainly
identified as false still created illusion of truth, such that they were judged as more credible upon
second encounter
Illusion of truth and false fame involve misinterpretation of sense of familiarity
Jacoby, Allan, Collins & Larwill: burst of noise with sentence embedded, judge how loud >
participants had easier time hearing repeated sentences against backdrop of noise > inferences
were made that noise containing familiar sentences were perceived as softer
Brown: witnessed staged crime > shown mug shots 2 or 3 days later but people in photos were
different from criminals in staged crime > pick out of lineup 4 or 5 days later > source confusion:
29% falsely selected from lineup a mugshot individual
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