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PSYB57H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cognitive Map, Synesthesia, Mental Rotation

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George Cree
Study Guide

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CH 7: IMAGERY 12/2/2014 5:06:00 AM
- time space: the visual experiences of time units such as days of the week
or months of the year as occupying spatial locations outside the body
occur automatically so they can’t be inhibited by consciousness
Pavio’s Dual-Coding Theory:
- dual-coding theory: the theory that there are 2 ways of representing
events, verbally and non verbally
both different types of representations have their own codes
which system is used depends on the nature of the information
- when information arrives to the human, it arrives in either of the 2 forms
after being picked up by sensory systems, the kind of information it
is is represented in whatever the corresponding system is
the two systems can interact with each other
o eg: when you are away from the dining room and are asked
to describe it, first you will use the non-verbal system to
picture the image, then you will use logogen to describe the
- logogens: units that make up the verbal system
contain information underlying our use of a particular word
operate sequentially; information comes up one after the other
o eg: when you think of a sentence, the words come to mind in
a particular order
- imagens: units that make up the non-verbal system
contain information that generates mental images
operate synchronously; the parts they contain are available for
inspection at the same time
o eg: picturing a group of people, one person from the group,
one person’s clothes from the group all at the same time
- imagery (Paivio’s sense): the easy with which something like a word can
elicit a mental image
concrete words: words with a high degree of imagery; they elicit a
mental image very easily
o eg: table, chair, bag, hair
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o concreteness: the degree to which a word refers to something
that can be experienced by the senses (eg: felt, heard,
abstract words: words with low degree of imagery; they don’t easily
elicit a mental image
o eg: purpose, addition
Research Related to Dual-Coding Theory:
- Paivio’s research on this theory involved the process of learning
- study:
4 groups of participants were given 16 word pairs to remember
o 1 group was given word pairs with both concrete words (eg:
o another was given word pairs with first word concrete and
second was abstract (eg: sofa/idea)
o third was given word pairs where the first was abstract and
second concrete (eg: theory/bag)
o fourth was given word pairs where both words were abstract
the first word was then given (stimulus) and the second word was
asked to be written down
o the number of correct answers was very high when both
words were concrete and very low when both words were
o concrete stimulus resulted in much better retrieval of abstract
word than the other way around
- the study showed that:
a concrete word can be coded by both the verbal and non-verbal
systems but an abstract word will only be coded by the verbal
system because there is no corresponding image
the fact that the concrete word is coded by both systems shows it is
more easily available in memory
Dual-Coding Theory and the Brain:
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- left hemisphere responsible for analytic tasks (eg: verbal and rational
responsible for the verbal (logogen) system
- right hemisphere responsible for holistic tasks (eg: non-verbal, intuitive
responsible for non-verbal (imagen) system
- subsequent fMRI research has failed to show evidence of this split-brain
Imagery and Mnemonics:
- mnemonic technique: procedure used to aid memory
- imagery has been used as mnemonic tool
method of loci: a mnemonic technique based on places and images
o done by establishing a cognition map of a large building and
placing in each of its locations (loci) an image representing
whatever items needed to be remembered
o recalling the items would be done by taking a mental stroll
around the building and collecting the images
Imagery and Distinctiveness:
- images that are used as memory aids should be very distinct by being very
eg: disturbing or beautifully ornamented
- bizarreness of images can be helpful under certain circumstances
people remember bizarre items better when they occur with
common items
but if the list consists only of bizarre items then they are not
remembered any better than a list with common items
eg: “the maid licked ammonia off the table” will be better
remembered if it is paired with common items like “the maid spilled
ammonia on the table”
this is called the Von Restorff effect
o if one item in a set is different from the others, it will be more
likely to be recalled
the bizarre items in a list of common items are
considered “different” but if the list was composed of all
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