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Final

PSYB57H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Auditory Scene Analysis, Sound, Visual Search


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB57H3
Professor
George Cree
Study Guide
Final

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PSYB51 Perception and Cognition Review Notes
Practice Quiz #1-3 What I Did Not Understand
Photopigment: Unstable pigments that undergo a chemical change when they absorb light
Pigmentosa: Inherited degenerative eye disease that causes severe vision impairment (of rod
photoreceptor cells)
Sharper Tuning: To raise in pitch, especially by one chromatic half
Akinetopsia: Motion blindness, unable to perceive motion
Superior Colliculus: Part of dorsal midbrain, motor related, capable of activating eye movements
(saccadic), directs head turns
Attentional Blink: The second of two targets cannot be detected or identified when it appears too close in
time to the first target
Change Blindness: A change in visual stimulus occur and the observer does not notice it
Balints Syndrome: Inability to perceive visual field as a whole 3 cardinal symptoms
1. Reduced spatial localization optic ataxia
2. Stimultanagnosia
3. Reduced eye movements optic apraxia
Timbre: Sounds with same pitch and loudness may still be different (Ex. Piano and Guitar)
Auditory Stream Segregation: Perceptual groupings of sounds to form coherent representations of
objects in the acoustic scene fundamental aspect of hearing and speech perception
Centre Surround: Antagonistic interactions between center and surround regions of the receptive fields
of photoreceptor cells in the retina
Contrast Sensitivity: Important measure of visual function in situations of low light, glare, or fog, the
contrast between object and background is reduced
Line Bisection Task: Measure to detect unilateral spatial neglect Shown some lines and asked to point
out the middle To do with perceptual biases
Chimeric Faces: (Levy&Heller) Study lateralization of function between two hemispheres combine sad
and happy faces, face can be all sad or all happy or a combination of the two, flashed quickly, asked to
determine whether the face was happy or sad
Radial Organization: Radiates information from a specific point
Tonotopic Organization: Sounds of different frequencies are processed in the brain
Categorical Perceptions: Experience of percept invariances in sensory phenomena that can be varied
along a continuum
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Lecture 7 Summary
- Selective Attention: Brain mechanism to process relevant input, thoughts, and actions, while
ignoring the irrelevant
- Covert vs Overt Shifts of Attention: C Not easily noticed/detectable … O Easily
noticeable/detectable eye movements
- Posners Attentional Cueing Paradigm
There are 3 times (and 3 boxes)
Fixate on blue box in time 1
- Stimulus Driven Cues: Info conveyed through previous events at the same location
- Voluntary Cues: (spatial) info conveyed through cognitions and memory, often based on language
or other symbols
Symbolic cues take longer to build up cueing effect (Ex. O) The arrow symbolizes the
cue will be on the right
- Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA): The time between the onset of one stimulus and the onset of
another
- Grating scales = Spatial Frequency, spaces between each grating
- Set Size: Number of items in a visual display impacts search time for inefficient searches
- Parallel: The processing of multiple stimuli at the same time
- Conjunction Search: In a conjunction search task, one target element differs, in half of the trials,
from distractors in a combination of two features. Observers indicate whether or not a target is
present
- Serial Self-Terminating Search: Items are examined one after another until target is found or until
all items are checked
- Limited Capacity Parallel Process: Watering garden with adjustable spray nozzle idea dividing
our attention to cover a larger range
- Feature Integration Theory:
1. Preattentive Stage: Parallel processing of basic features across entire visual field before
selective attention is deployed
2. Attentive Stage: Spatial attention binds together features for one item at a time, serial search
combining together of 2 features at a time
- Conjunction lost when you are told to pay attention to one stimulus, then you might not notice the
second stimulus
- Can only do this with one stimulus at a time
- Binding Problem: When 2 objects are defined by two separate feature dimensions (Ex. Blue
Horizontal stripes and Red Vertical stripes)
- Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP): Method of displaying information at one location
in which each piece of information is displayed briefly in sequential order
Ex. Marvin Chuns fishing metaphor – Too busy picking up second fish to notice
second one float by
- Attention and Single Cells
Three ways a cell could be changed by attention
1. Response enhancement
2. Sharper Tuning (more narrow)
3. Altered Tuning (moved over a bit from original) Think of graph for all these tunings
h.
Empty box appears automatically in box
two, it shifts your attention, making you
think that is where the blue cue box is
suppose to be
Third box Shows this cue is valid
because the cue appears after box flashes
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Lecture 8 Summary
- Early vs. Late Selection:
Attention is directed to ears/what you're hearing
Early: The pitch of someone's voice, their tone of voice, volume
Late: The meaning of what they're saying to you
Attention is directed to eyes/vision
Early: The colour, motion, speed, shape of object/person
Late: Why is this person walking towards me or why this person doing what they are doing
- Spotlight or Search Light Model: Attention is confined to a coherent region of space and can
move from one point to the next
- Zoom Lens Model: Attention expands from fixation…grows to fill whole region…shrinks to include
just cues location (Ex. Camera lens, can focus or expand)
- Bias Competition Model of Attention: (Desimone&Duncan)
Competition: Stimuli in the visual field compete for limited processing capacity and
control of behavior (Ex. Overlap of receptive fields)
Bias: Competition biased towards certain stimuli depending on
Bottom-Up Bias Salience
Top-Down Bias Instructions, Spatial Cues, Feature Cues
- Premotor Theory of Attention
1. Strict link between covert attention (orientation) and programming explicit ocular movements
overt attention
2. Attention is oriented to a given point when the oculomotor program for moving the eyes to
this point is ready to be executed
3. Covert orienting of attention (w/o eye movements)is achieved by inhibiting the execution of
eye movement itself
- Corbetta & Shulmans DAN and VAN
Dorsal Attentional Network for goal-directed (endogenous) selection and responses
Associated with both hemispheres
Ventral Attentional Network for unexpected, salient stimuli, circuit breaker Mainly
associated with the right hemisphere
- Common Comorbidities
1. Visual Field Defect A portion of the visual field with no vision or with abnormal vision,
typically resulting from damage to the visual nervous system
2. Motor Deficits Paralyzed Arm etc
3. Spatial Neglect Inability to attend to or respond to stimuli in the contralesional visual field,
typically after right brain damage
Ex. Trouble with writing and drawing
May shave only one side of face, or eat from one side of the
plate, dress one side of body (think of clock drawing task)
Can be symptoms of significantly reduced caloric stimulation
- Extinction: Parietal lesions in either left or right brain
Unable to detect contralesional stimuli when presented together with ipsilesional one
Caloric Stimulation
A test that uses differences in
temperature to diagnose
damage to the acoustic nerve
Ipsilateral: Same side of body
Contralateral: Opposite side of
body
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