PSYB57H3- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 14 pages long!)

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PSYB57H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSYB57 Introduction to Cognitive Psychology:
Lec 01:
Cognition:
Psychological science is the study of the mind, brain and behavior. Cognitive psychology is a
piece of that. There are many other factors that affect behavior, mind and brain.
Cognitive psychology is concerned with the systematic study of how cognitive processes work.
Mind wandering is also a very interesting branch of psychology. It is exceptionally important.
We use that time to make a lot of decisions. We think to ourselves and it has a lot of utility and
thus should not be ignored.
What is it that helps us understand something, or make things not easy for us?
Thinking outside the box = creativity. How do we understand what it is? How can we teach
creativity or innovatively?
Seeing the world differently situatio hee soeoe asks ou to dae → peso a e
interested or they can be messing with them. SO one situation can be interpreted very
differently. So how does culture and social culture make us act differently?
Endel Tolvin: the most impressive cognitive ability we have is to imagine a state of affairs that
does not exist at the moment.
For the demo:
1. When words flashed up we visually perceived the letters. Recognized and understood
the words.
2. We put the words together into a sentence we can understand the meaning of
3. We decided whether it was true or false
4. Remembered the condition of hands
5. Chose which hand to raise
6. Moved hand
7. Looked at what other people are doing
All of these happened in about a second or a second and a half.
Second example: name color on screen: (STROOP TASK)
When the color and text of color is different:
Reading is an automatic process so we tend to read it.
Colos e dot ead as uh. We dot alk aoud saig olos.
So it took longer when the process is not automatic.
- Maintain the task rule
- Perceive the letters and colors
- Read the word and extract meaning
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- Inhibit words in favor of the ink color
- Select how to respond
- Respond as appropriate
- Monitor your feedback
Tasks like these can be created to isolate and examine different mental processes.
Inhibition is one of the most important higher order functions we have.
Soe disodes hee ihiitio is ot oal → ADHD, et.
A simple color task can thus help you identify different disorders as well.
Brain Machine Interface: suppose through a tragic injury one lost their arm. Imagine you knew
enough about brain function that you could interface your robotic arm with your brain so your
brain could make the robotic arm do stuff that you could before iju → ioi ee ad ioi
arms. This is a super exciting part of cognitive neuroscience.
Hugely powerful for rehabilitation.
Locked in Syndrome: Most commonly you have a brain injury in the brain stem area, and
renders your body incapable of making your body what they want to do. Their mind is locked
ito a od that doest ok the a its iteded to. Fo the logest tie e didt ko that
these people had properly functioning minds. Suppose we had a way to read mind and know
what he was thinking, thanks to advancements in cognition and neuroscience, we can read very
basic thoughts from the brain.
Basically it gives a person who can no longer communicate with any way a chance to
communicate it. These people are considered functionally dead, but they could live again.
Medications can help you through a lot of disorders and illnesses. A proper understanding of
cognitive science helps us understand how medications can change how our cognition/brain
works.
Understanding what we have learned about leaig ad eo a ipoe soeoes
learning and memory.
Developmental trajectories: when we track people overtime and monitor how their ability to
think has changed, it is a developmental question. So understanding best practices for speeding
people along is very useful.
How can one mentally fit even as they are growing older?
The fear of losing your mind when you are old is a serious concern.
Can the stroop task be used to detect phobias?
Yeah because there are different aiatios → ou an devise it in a way so that color could be
associated with emotion and figure out phobias.
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