PSYB57H3- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 14 pages long!)

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Published on 5 Oct 2017
School
Department
Course
UTSC
PSYB57H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Cognitive)psychology)is#the#study#of#the#processes#and#products#of#the#human#
mind
This#includes:
Absorbing -->#taking#in#information#from#the#environment#using#sensation
Processing -->#thoughr,#analysis#of#the#sensations,#integrating#sensations
Responding)-->#decisions#and#actions#(or#action#of#non-response)
Idea#is#something#happens#in#the#environment#(input)#which#the#brain#
processes#(kind#of#like#a#computer)#and#creates#a#response#(output)
Methods# of#Inquiry
Introspection#(Structuralism)
Structuralism is#the#idea#of#taking#complex#ideas/thing#and#reducing#it#to#their#
simplist#parts#in#order#to#understand
Structuralism#used#introspection to#study#the#mind,#using#self-reflection#to#
break#down#own#mental#thoughts#
Eg.#I#am#angry.##My#hands#are#shaking.##My#face#is#turning#red.##I#want#to#
hurt#someone.
Key)scholars: William#Wundt,#Edward#Titchener
There#are#limitations to#such#an#approach:
Difficult#to#verify#-->#private#events#and#can't#be#sure#how#honest#they're#
being
Not#always#aware#of#everything that#occurs#-->#some#automatic#processes
Eg.#Cannot#break#down#remembering#something.##Either#you#do#or#
you#don't.
Ironic#and#weird#-->#use#thinking#to#study#thinking?
Freudian#Theory
Focused#on#the#idea#of#the#unconscious)mind which#was#why#introspection#
could#not#work
Freudian)slips were#significant#mistakes#that#meant#something
Eg.#Calling#your#best#friend#"honey"#could#mean#you#saw#them#as#
Lecture'One:'History'of'Cognitive'Psychology
Sunday,#September# 17,#2017
12:13#PM
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Eg.#Calling#your#best#friend#"honey"#could#mean#you#saw#them#as#
girlfriend/wife#material
Believed#dreams#were#where#the#unconscious#mind#let#inappropriate#
urges#be#fulfilled
Also#focused#on#personality)theory of#id,#ego#and#superego
Resulted#in#defense#mechanisms
Believed#origins#of#psychiatric#disorders#stemmed#from#deep,#repressed#
memories
Interesting#view#on#how#we#behave#but#very#sexist
Limitations included:
Inability#to#prove#whether#these#hypotheses#were#true/false#-->#
untestable
This#made#it#not#actually#part#of#the#scientific#method
Behaviourism
Behaviourism believed#that#you#couldn't#really#study#the#mind#and#therefore#
their#research#discounted#it#entirely
Wanted#to#focus#on#observable#behaviour
Key)scholars:
Ivan#Pavlov#and#his#classical)conditioning
BF#Skinner#and#operational)conditioning
John#Watson
Limitation:#Didn't#explain#all#of#cognition#by#rejecting#the#mind
Eg.#False#memories
Eg.#How#we#learn#language#easily#as#a#child
Eg.#How#we#come#up#with#new#ways#of#thinking#(creativity)
Cognitivism
By#observing#inputs#and#outputs#of#the#mind#(behaviour)#we#can#make#
inferences#about#mental#processes
This#was#a#Cognitive)Revolution where#they#believed#studying#only#behaviour#
left#out#key#information#-->#transformed#psychology
Came#up#with#the#information)processing)perspective where#the#human#brain#
was#compared#to#a#computer,#doing#computations#from#inputs#
(stimulus/environment)#to#shoot#out#output#(motor#command)
Created#artificial)neuro)networks to#model#cognitive#computations#that#were#
inspired#by#biological#neural#networks
Came#up#with#computational#algorithms#to#mimic/simulate#thinking#process
Determined#complex#models#of#cognition
Serial)processing
assumed#thought#
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