vividness of visual imagery. Furthermore, despite being able to recall many
details from eidetic images, these descriptions are generally no more
accurate than ordinary memories (i.e., this does not represent photographic
memory). Photographic memory as it is commonly understood likely doesn’t
exist, although, there has been a single reported case of superb eidetic
imagery ability. People vary in their ability to use visual imagery. This has
been referred to as the vividness of visual imagery, and can be quantified
using a questionnaire called the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire.
In addition to perceiving images, people can imagine whole objects that
move. For example, participants use mental rotation to conclude whether or
not two objects are the same. Furthermore, it was found that objective
distance is preserved in people’s mental images. It was then argued that
categorical distance was another important factor that contributes to the
time it takes to scan through a mental image. Images can also be used as
anticipations. Moreover, they can show emergent properties whilst being
constructed. It has often been maintained that imagery is an analog form of
representation. In contrast to mental rotation, there are egocentric
perspective transformations, where people imagine themselves moving in a
Finally, the spatial framework in which people perceive themselves has one
vertical and two horizontal dimensions. Although there has been a great deal
of research on imagery, there is some debate regarding the nature of the
representation of knowledge. One theory is called propositional knowledge,
in which Tolman proposed that behaviour is determined by cognitive maps.
Another view is that people use an egocentric frame of reference to orient
themselves. By adopting this technique, they can also use path integration.
Overall, people have mental models for many situations.
Time-Space Synesthesia & Number Forms
instead of recording appointments in a book or electronic device, some
people can visualize a virtual calendar with each month, day, and hour in a
specific location in space and simply place an appointment in the "right spot"
on the space. time space.
oWhen these people hear, see, or even just think of the names of
various units of time such as days of the week, weeks, and months,
they see them in spatial patterns external to themselves.
oCases of this kind were described by several early investigators,
including Sir Francis Galton
An example of one person's time space is shown in Figure 7.1.
oThis person experiences the months of the year in an oval form, which
appears about 30 cm in front of her face.
oOther individuals experience their time spaces as surrounding their
bodies at about waist height.