PSYB57H3 Quiz: mtuner1
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB57H3
Professor
Dwayne Pare

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PSYB57 – Chapter 1: Introduction
-Study of human cognition advanced in 3 stages
o1st: 1950-60’s- propelled by psychophysics (relationship b/w sensation and
stimulus) & experimental psych
o2nd: Mid 1970’s- computational analysis and marked the arrival of cognitive
science
o3rd: Mid 1980’s neuropsychology, animal neurophysiology & imaging
techniques
-Bits: The amount of info provided by a given event
oE.g. Coin toss => coin falls on heads/ tails = one bit of info
Informational Theory
-Information theory: The less likely it is, the more info it conveys
oE.g. You greet a friend-> “How are you?”
Friend replies:
A) “Fine thanks”
B) “Absolutely awful- I must’ve picked up the flu”
oB statement= more informative because it is much
less probable
Early Tests of Information Theory
-Hick - measured time it took participants to react appropriately to a set of signals
oStimuli = 1-10 lights
oResponses = Keys under participants fingers
Response time slowed down as # of stimuli increased
Results: Stimulus info= tightly linked with processing time
The more info a signal provides => more time it takes a
subject to respond
-Hyman- 1st experiment: Participants asked to make appropriate verbal response to
varying lights
oIncreasing # of probable light alternative from 1 to 8, produced an increase
in response time = confirming Hick’s observation
o2nd experiment: Made occurrence of some signals more frequent than others
Response time to frequent signals = reduced
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o3rd experiment: Introduced sequential dependencies
E.g. certain lights followed by others at specific frequencies
Responses became faster as a signal’s probability increased
and slower as it decreased
Limitations on Information- Processing
-The amount of time it takes for information to flow through the nervous system = 1
limitation on information processing capacity
oE.g. the more info a visual signal conveys-> longer it takes to make
appropriate response
Nervous system shows a capacity limitation for the amount of info it
can handle in a fixed period of time
Models of Information-Processing
Broadbent’s Filter Model
-Channel Capacity: The max. amount of info that can be transmitted by an
information-processing device
-Filter Model: Theory that information- processing is restricted by channel capacity
-Broadbent argues: whole nervous system can be regarded as a single channel with
limits at which it can transmit stimulus info
-Overloading the capacity channel is prevented by a filter-> only allows some of the
available info to enter the system
oPreceding the filter is a capacity-free sensory buffer/ temporary storage
oMultiple signals enter buffer-> buffer then extracts simple stimulus
characteristics (colour-vision, voice-hearing, and/ or spatial location)
oFilter selects some info and passes them along to the limited capacity system
which analyzes “higher order” stimulus attributes (form and meaning)
oMessages that were not selected = subject to decay
-Broadbent’s research with pairs of digits showed that both ears act as separate
channels for info output
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oFilter chooses which channel to recall first
oWhen asked to recall digits from each ear (then move to the next set) there
is a jump in attention which requires time => leads to info decay
Waugh and Norman’s Model of Information- Processing
-Primary Memory: Otherwise known as “immediate memory”/ Short term memory
oAllows us to immediately & accurately recall our most recent experiences
-Secondary Memory: Knowledge acquired at an earlier time that is stored
indefinitely -> long term memory
-Brown-Peterson task: Experimental paradigm -> subjects given set of items and
then a number. Subjects immediately count backwards by three from the number-
after specific interval are asked to recall original item
oParticipants prevented from retaining items in primary memory
Ecological Validity
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Description
PSYB57 Chapter 1: Introduction Study of human cognition advanced in 3 stages st o 1 : 195060s propelled by psychophysics (relationship bw sensation and stimulus) experimental psych o 2 : Mid 1970s computational analysis and marked the arrival of cognitive science o 3 : Mid 1980s neuropsychology, animal neurophysiology imaging techniques Bits: The amount of info provided by a given event o E.g. Coin toss => coin falls on heads tails = one bit of info Informational Theory Information theory: The less likely it is, the more info it conveys o E.g. You greet a friend> How are you? Friend replies: A) Fine thanks B) Absolutely awful I mustve picked up the flu o B statement= more informative because it is much less probable Early Tests of Information Theory Hick measured time it took participants to react appropriately to a set of signals o Stimuli = 110 lights o Responses = Keys under participants fingers Response time slowed down as of stimuli increased Results: Stimulus info= tightly linked with processing time The more info a signal provides => more time it takes a subject to respond Hyman 1 experiment: Participants asked to make appropriate verbal response to varying lights o Increasing of probable light alternative from 1 to 8, produced an increase in response time = confirming Hicks observation nd o 2 experiment: Made occurrence of some signals more frequent than others Response time to frequent signals = reduced
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