PSYB57H3 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Memory, Cognitive Psychology, William James

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Published on 12 Oct 2018
School
Department
Course
Professor
PSYB57H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Course overview:
o Two mid-terms, one final cumulative exam.
Mid-term I: 27%.
Mid-term II: 33%.
Final exam: 40%.
o Practice questions will be posted weekly after every lecture.
o Course textbook: Cognition 6th Edition.
o Office hours available in person before class, and in the evenings over Skype.
***
Reading demo - mental processes involved:
o Task: read the sentences shown on screen, raise left hand if you believe statement is true,
raise right hand if you believe statement is false.
Visually perceive the letters on screen.
Recognize and understand the words.
Comprehend the meaning of the sentence.
Decide truth or falsity.
Remember the true-left, false-right.
Select the hand to raise.
Control the movement of the hand.
Monitor your behaviour for feedback.
Stroop demo - mental processes involved:
o Task: read aloud the colours shown on screen.
Maintain the task rule (i.e., name the ink, not the word); for example, when shown
blue, read "red," not "blue."
Perceive the letters and colours.
Read word and extract its meaning.
Inhibit word in favour of the ink colour.
Select the how to respond.
Control the movement of your hand.
Monitor your behaviour for feedback.
o What is the purpose of the Stroop task?
To monitor the difference in perception between children and adults (i.e., children
cannot complete the Stroop task effectively, but adults can).
Monitors inhibition (difficulty or success in stopping a behaviour) -- someone with
inhibition difficulties may have lots more trouble completing the Stroop task.
Applied cognitive science:
o Informing best practices for learning in the classroom for students.
o Examining the effect of medications on cognitive performance.
o Mapping developmental trajectories and learning how to "speed people along."
o Mental elements of brain-machine interface - using your brain to communicate with a
robotic arm after losing your real arm in an accident; the brain tells the robotic arm to pick
up a bottle of water, and the arm moves to do so - the same applies to a robotic leg, eye,
etc.
o Resisting the subtle changes that typically accompany aging (or slowing the progression of
less subtle, pathological changes.
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***
Lecture Objectives:
To understand the major movements preceding cognitivism, with a particular focus on their
respective strengths and weaknesses;
To explain what was (and what fuelled) the cognitive revolution, as well as select key events
that aided in the advancement of cognitive science;
To critically analyze the relevance of neuroscience in complementing cognitive psychology
and its goals;
To examine the idea and utility of localization of function, and to connect it to the broader
idea of cognitive networks;
To appreciate how cognitive psychology and neuroscience can be examined through a
variety of important lenses (e.g., developmental).
Cognitive Psychology:
o The scientific study of the processes and products of the human mind.
Absorbing (sensation).
Processing (perception, computations, integration).
Responding (decisions and action).
The Big Challenge:
o How to know/study how a stimulus/input generates a response/output from someone. ***
Review in WebOption the discussion of this slide.***
Method of Inquiry - Introspection (Structuralism):
o Structuralism: picking apart the pieces that form a whole to understand that whole.
o Introspection: looking deeply within oneself to understand their mind/feelings/thoughts.
o Key limitations:
Difficult to verify (private events!)
You aren't always aware.
The end product, not the process.
o Key players: William Wundt (1832-1920), & Edward Titchener (1867-1927).
Method of Inquiry - Freudian Theory:
o The unconscious mind:
Freudian slips - e.g., accidentally calling a friend your wife/husband when talking
about them, in the Freudian perspective, may insinuate that you unconsciously have
feelings for that friend, thereby accidentally referring to them as your significant
other.
Dreams - your unconscious mind brought to life in the form of a dream while asleep.
o Personality theory:
Id, superego, ego.
Defense mechanisms.
Origins of psychiatric illnesses.
o Limitations:
Falsifiability.
Method of Inquiry - Behaviourism:
o We can observe the inputs to and outputs from the mind (behaviour).
o Psychology reframed as the science of behaviour.
o The mind of unobservable and thus should not be a target of scientific inquiry.
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