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PSYB64H3 Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Spinal Cord, Neuron, Memory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB64H3
Professor
Janelle Leboutillier
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSYB64H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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Chapter 1: What is behavioural neuroscience?
Terms
Definitions
Neuroscience
Scientific study of the brain and nervous system in health and disease
Behavioural neuroscience/
biological psychology
The study of biological foundations of behaviour, emotions, and
mental processes
Mind-body dualism
(Decartes)
The mind neither physical nor accessible to study through physical
sciences
Monoism
Rather than dualism, proposes mind is result of activity in the brain
Phrenology
Structure of an individuals skull could be created with his or her
individual personality characteristics and abilities
Histology
The study of cells and tissues at the microscopic level
Microtome
Device used to make thin slices of tissue for histology
Golgi silver stain
Stain developed by Golgi used to observe single neurons
Nissl stain
Stain used to view population of cell bodies
Myelin stain
Stain used to trace neural pathways
Horseradish peroxidase
Stain used to trace axon pathways from their terminals to points of
origin
Autopsy
The examination of body tissues following death
Computerized tomography
(CT)
Imaging technology in which computers are used to enhance X-ray
images
Positron emission
tomography (PET)
Imaging technique that provides info regarding localization of brain
activity
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Recording of the brains electrical activity through electrodes placed
on scalp
Event-related potential (ERP)
Alternation in the EEG recording produced in response to the
application of a particular stimulus
Magnetoencephalography
(MEG)
Technology for recording the magnetic output of the brain
Single-cell recording
The recording of the activity of single neurons through micro
electrodes surgically implanted in the area of interests
repeated transcranial
magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
Technique for stimulating the cortex at regular intervals by applying a
magnetic pulse through a wire coiled encased in plastic and placed
on the scalp
Optogenetics
Genetic insertion of mol. into specific neurons that allow the activity of
neurons to be controlled by light
Lesion
Pathological or traumatic damage to tissue
Ablation
Surgical removal of tissue
Terms
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Chapter 1: What is behavioural neuroscience?
Neuroscience as an interdisciplinary field !
1. Analyzes the brain and nervous system across a level of analysis using molecular< cellular<
synaptic< network< behavioural approaches (computational neuroscience) !
2. Microscopic level: Molecules serve as building blocks (DNA, RNA, proteins—> gene
expression)!
3. Molecular neuroscience attempt to understand chemicals that build system and make neural
functioning possible !
I) Outlines structure, physiological properties and functions of single cells found in NS !
II) Synapses: Junctions where isolated cells forge connection to communicate !
III) Synaptic neuroscience: Examines strength and flexibility of neural connections which
underlie complex processes such as learning and memory!
4. Interconnected neurons form pathway or networks (in contrary to previous knowledge where
specific synapses has a specific function. Instead they work as a team) !
5. Behavioural neuroscience: Looks @ activity of NS in health and in cases of illness or injury !
I) Subspecialty: Social neuroscience (interactions between the NS and env./behaviour),
study of the biological correlates of information processing, learning and memory,
decision making and reasoning !
6. Computational neuroscience: Computer science, electrical engineering, math, physics —>
Produces models of NS from molecular to behavioural levels !
I) Predictions are tested in living systems!
!
Historical highlights in neuroscience !
(A) Ancient milestone in understanding NS !
1. 7,000 years ago people tried to cure others by drilling holes into the skull= trephining/
trepanation !
I) Intent is unclear: Possibly to relieve demons or feelings of pressure !
2. Egypt: It was understood lack of sensation/ paralysis resulted from NS damage !
3. Greek: Proposed brain is an organ of sensation !
4. Hippocrates: Identified epilepsy originated in the brain !
5. Galen: Dissected animals and believed ventricles transmitted messages from the brain
(error that influenced thinking about the NS for another 1500 years!
!
!
Microdialysis
Technique for assessing chemical composition of a very small area of
the brain
Concordance rate
Statistical probability that two cases will agree; usually used to predict
the risk of an identical twin for developing a condition already
diagnosed in his/her twin
Heritability
The amount of trait caries in a population due to genetics
Knockout gene
Gene used to replace a normal gene that does not produce the
protein product of the normal gene
Epigenetics
Development of traits by factors that influence the performance of
genes without changing the underlying genes themselves
Stem cell
A cell that can divide and differentiate into other types of cells
Definitions
Terms
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