PSYB65H3 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Neocortex, Limbic System, Posterior Cerebral Artery

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Published on 5 Oct 2016
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UTSC
PSYB65H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSYB65 Lecture 1: Human Brain and Behaviour Introduction
What is Neuropsychology?
Scientific study of the relationship between the brain and behaviour
Draws from many disciplines, including anatomy, biology, pharmacology and philosophy
Experimental vs. clinical
The Brain Hypothesis: the brain is the source of behaviour
o Biological system of the brain allows the creation of behaviour
The Neuron Hypothesis: the unit of brain structure and function is the neuron
oAll about the manifestations of the brain that affect behaviour
The History of Neuropsychology
Trephination
Surgical procedure
Reasons: treat intracranial pressure and other problems
Modern Neurosurgery
Craniotomy/ectomy
oDepressed skull fractures
oICP monitoring/treatment
Subdural/epidural hematomas
oDeep brain stimulation: place electronics deep inside the brain
Parkinson’s disease
Biological Basis of Human Experience/Behaviour
Cephalocentric – viewpoint that the brain is the seat of the mind and behaviour
oAlcameon
oHippocrates
oPlato
Cardiocentric – viewpoint that the centre of the mind is in your chest (heart), thus it causes
behaviour
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oWhen feeling particular emotions and sensations, you get a feeling in your heart
(acceleration, heavy pounding)  got people to believe that emotions and behaviour was
caused by the heart
oEmpedocles of Acragas
oAristotle
Western Civilization
Philosophy
Natural sciences
Ancient Egyptian, Greek & Roman Thinkers
Nature and locus of the mind
oWhere did the mind exist?
oWhere do I exist in the mind? What part of the brain makes me the person that I am?
(personality, etc)
Advances in mathematics and philosophy
Early Greek Medicine
Prior to 500 BCE, medical practice was controlled by priests/Templar physicians
Used more of a spiritual approach than a medical one to treat someone
Alcmaeon of Croton
Objectively dissected animals
oWe can understand ourselves better in a biological viewpoint from studying the
anatomy and biological functions of dissected animals
Established medical school
Holistic approach
Elemental theory of matter
Hippocrates (460-377 BCE)
Founder of Modern Medicine
Brain hypothesis
oContralateral organization
The brain is contralaterally organized with the spec of a lot of victims
oEpilepsy
“It [epilepsy] appears to me in no way more divine, nor more sacred than other
diseases, but has a natural cause from which it originates like other affections.
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