[PSYB65H3] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (140 pages long!)

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PSYB65H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSYB65 - Textbook Notes
CHAPTER 2: NEUROANATOMY (28-)
CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
what makes humans higher-functioning organism is fact that humans have aggregates of specialized cells that
perform specialized functions
neurons and glia specialized cells of nervous system; specialized in both structure and function
glia provide support functions; neurons are communicators
neurons react and respond to stimuli, are basis of behaviour; also learn and store info about their external
environment
NEURONS AND GLIA: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
GROSS ANATOMY OF THE NEURON
many types of neurons, but most look like one on page 29
shape related to function: receive, conduct, transmit signals- collect info and send it on (or not)
3 main components:
dendrites: receive incoming info from other neurons
soma: cell body which contains genetic machinery and most of metabolic machinery needed for common
cellular functions
axon: sends neural info to other neurons
info passed from axon to dendrite across gap (20-50 nm wide) called synapse
on basis of position relative to synapse: events in axon presynaptic, events in dendrite postsynaptic
dendrites essentially increase surface area available for reception of signals from axons of other neurons
all info sent to rest of neuron in form of electrical charge (action potential)
dendrites often covered with tiny spores, which grow and retract in response to experience; spines themselves
can form synapses with other neurons
neuron has one axon, though axon can divide into many branches (increases number of synapses it can form)
many axons along mammalian nervous system covered with insulation called myelin; helps to speed rate of
information transfer and ensure message gets to end of axon
and of axon called terminal button; info sent from terminal button across synapse to dendrite
info that passes from axon across synapse in form of neurochemical message (by neurotransmitters); may be
transformed into electrical message within dendrite
INTERNAL ANATOMY OF THE NEURON
plasma membrane consists of bilayer of continuous sheets of phospholipids that separate 2 fluid environments
(outside and inside-cytoplasm cell)
within membrane are proteins and channels that allow passage of materials into and out of neuron
inside main cell body, organelles form environment which perform various genetic (nucleus), synthetic
(ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum), and metabolic (mitochondria) processes that keep cell functioning
nucleus packages and control genetic information contained in DNA; processes genetic info needed to form to
complete series of events that form path from recipe that genetic info provides to form proteins that neuron
needs
nucleus also contains all of genetic info needed to code proteins like those for eye colour, as well as those
thought to underlie complex processes like linguistic ability
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF NEURONS
some common neurons labelled as unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar
unipolar neurons have only one process emanating from cell body
bipolar neurons have two processes
multipolar have numerous processes extending from cell body; most common
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neurons with no axons or only very short axons called interneurons; tend to integrate info within cellular
structure rather than sending info between structures
motor and sensory neuron signals
afferent neurons bring info to central nervous system; efferent sends info from brain or away from structure
neuron can change shape as result of experience
GLIA
generally, glia perform support systems
support cells outside of brain and spinal cord called satellite cells
3 types of glia:
astrocytes are largest and tend to be star shaped; fill space between neurons, resulting in close contact
between neurons and astrocytes
close contact between astrocytes and neurons thought to affect neuron growth
involved in BBB
perform nutritive and metabolic functions for neurons
essential for regulation of chemical content of extracellular space; envelop synapse and can regulate how
far neurotransmitters and other substances released by terminal button can spread
important in storage of neurotransmitters
oligodendrocytes
microglia
CHAPTER 5: THE SENSORIMOTOR SYSTEM (140-173)
SENSORIMOTOR SYSTEM
accurate movements depend on our ability to monitor position and placement of our body and its parts; relies on
somatosensory feedback from joints, tendons, muscles, and skin
WHY SENSORIMOTOR?
when somatosensory nerves are destroyed, you can still move arm, but can’t tell where arm is without looking or
how tight your grasp is
many automatic adjustments we make to movements occur without involvement of higher cortical areas and are
relatively resistant to inference from higher cortical areas
SOMATOSENSORY RECEPTORS
types of receptors usually functionally grouped into 3 types of somatic information:
nociception are sensations o pain and temperature
hapsis are sensations of fine touch and pressure
proprioception is awareness of body and its position in space
most sensory receptors in skin are mechanoreceptors, which react to distortion such as bending or stretching
mechanoreceptors also wrap around hairs that cover body
most types of mechanoreceptors are axons that have mechanosensitive ion channels on them
axons that contain channels primary afferent axons that enter spinal cord through dorsal room
cell bodies of primary afferent axons reside in dorsal root ganglia of spinal cord
spinal cord organized into dorsal and ventral root ganglia
dorsal root ganglia somatosensory
ventral root ganglia motor
30 pairs of spinal nerves, each made up of dorsal and ventral roots that exit spinal cord through notch in
vertebrae of spine
spinal segments can be divided into 4 groups based on where nerves originate; see page 143:
cervical (C): 1-8
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