[PSYB65H3] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (153 pages long)

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Published on 29 Nov 2016
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PSYB65H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Origins of Brain & Behavior 20:51
NEUROSCIENCE IN THE 21ST CENTURY
Why Study Brain & Behavior?
brain: physical object, a living tissue, a body organ
behavior: action, momentarily observable, but fleeting
brain and behavior differ but are linked … evolved together
(3) reasons why they are linked:
How the brain produces behavior is a major unanswered scientific question
The brain is the most complex living organ on Earth and is found in many
different groups of animals
A growing list of behavioral disorders can be explained and cured by
understanding the brain
more than 2000 disorders may in some way be related to brain
abnormalities
What is the Brain?
brain is the Anglo-Saxon word for the tissue found within the skull
human brain comprises two major sets of structures
cerebrum (forebrain): major structure of the forebrain that consists of two
virtually identical hemispheres (half a sphere, referring to one side of the
cerebrum) and is responsible for most conscious behavior
the cerebrum enfolds the brainstem: central structure of the brain
responsible for most unconscious behavior
cerebellum: major structure of the brainstem specialized for coordinating
and learning skilled movements … in large-brained animals, the cerebellum
may also have a role in coordinating other mental processes
Gross Anatomy of the Nervous System
neuron: specialized nerve cell engaged in information processing
spinal cord part of the central nervous system encased within the vertebrae
(spinal column) that provides most of the connections between the brain and
the rest of the body
central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord that together
mediate behavior
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both encased by bone (skull/vertebrae)
“central” because physically located at core and core structure mediating
behavior
peripheral nervous system (PNS) all the neurons in the body located
outside the brain and spinal cord … provides sensory and motor connections
to and from the CNS
1920’s, Jacobson wondered what would happen if our muscles completely
stopped moving
believed muscles of the larynx subliminally move when we “think in words”
reported a condition of “mental emptiness,” as if the brain had gone blank
1957, Heron wondered how would the brain cope without sensory input?
experience was extremely unpleasant
lost focus … some hallucinated to replace lack of sensory experiences
embodied language: hypothesis that the movements we make and the
movements we perceive in others are central to communication with others
Harvey could not put a functioning brain in a bottle because disconnected
from the PNS !!!
What is Behavior?
Eibl-Eibesfeldt began his textbook Ethology: The Biology of Behavior,
published in 1970,with the following definition: “Behavior consists of
patterns in time”
patterns can be made up of movements, vocalizations, or changes in
appearance
thinking too !
behavioral patterns of animals vary enormously
most behaviors probably consist of a mix of inherited and learned actions
EX: crossbills are inherited while roof rats need to be taught first how to use
sharp teeth
animals with smaller, simpler nervous systems have a narrow range of
behaviors that depend on heredity
animals with complex nervous systems have more behavioral options that
depend on learning
however, we humans still have inherited responses (sucking)
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