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[PSYB65H3] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 105 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
PSYB65H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Textbook Notes PSYB65 September 14, 2016
Chapter #2
Chapter #2 – What is the Nervous
System’s Functional Anatomy?
Research Focus 2-1- Agenesis of the Cerebellum
- When an adult’s brain is damages, as for example in traumatic brain injury, we see a
pattern of behavioral changes that offer insight into brain functions
-Agenesis: the failure of brain regions to develop
- Historically, the cerebellum was viewed as a motor structure, with the most obvious sign
of damage being ataxia (a failure of muscular coordination and balance)
- Adult patients with damage to the cerebellum have motor disturbances, but also have
cognitive deficits (e.g., in abstract thinking and language and in emotional control)
- The cerebellum contains the most neurons of any brain region, accounting for 80% of
the neurons in humans
- Someone whose cerebellum failed to develop but the rest of the brain developed
normally
oBehavioral capacities are remarkable
oDistinctive speaking pattern, an awkward gait, difficulty with balance, deficits in
planning and abstract thinking
oSocial skills and long-term memory are fine
- Although those with cerebellar genesis develop slowly, they show remarkable
improvement over time and seem able to compensate for many of their symptoms
- In people with absence of the cerebellum it is thought that brain plasticity in response
to early perturbations emerge as regions of the cerebral cortex begin to function more
efficiently
oSome symptoms of autism early in life
2.1 – Overview of the Brain Function and Structure
- The brain’s primary function is to produce behaviour or movement
- Without stimuli, the brain cannot orient the body and direct it to produce an
appropriate response
- The nervous system’s organs are deigned to admit information from the world ad to
convert this information into biological activity that produces perception
-Perception: subjective experiences of reality
oThe brain produces what we believe is reality so that we can move which is
essential for carrying out complex tasks
- Our mental construct of reality is based not only on the sensory information we receive
but also on the cognitive processes we might use to interact with that incoming
information
- Subjective differences in brains exist for good reason: they allow different animals to
exploit different features in their environments
- Evolution fosters adaptability: equipping each species with a view of the world that
helps it survive
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Textbook Notes PSYB65 September 14, 2016
Chapter #2
Principle 1: The nervous system produces movement in a perceptual world the brain constructs
Plastic Patterns of Neural Organization
- The brain is plastic: neural tissue has the capacity to adapt to the world by changing
how its functions are organized
oAlso plastic in the sense that connections among neurons in a given functional
system are constantly changing in response to experience
- For us to learn anything new, neural circuits must change to represent and store this
knowledge
- An important aspect of human learning and brain plasticity is related to the
development of language and to the expansion of the brain regions related to language
- The basis for change in the nervous system is neuroplasticity: the nervous system’s
fundamental potential for physical or chemical change that enhances its adaptability to
environmental change and its ability to compensate for injury.
- Although it is tempting to see neuroplasticity as a trait unique to animals’ nervous
systems, it is really part of a larger biological capacity called phenotype plasticity
-phenotypic plasticity: An individual’s capacity to develop into more than one
phenotype.
oPhenotype – the characteristic we can see or measure
- An individual’s genotype (genetic makeup) interacts with the environment to elicit a
specific phenotype
- This phenotype emerges from a large genetic repertoire of possibilities, a phenomenon
that in turn results from epigenetic influences
-Epigenetic factors do not change genes but rather influence how genes inherited from
parents express specific traits.
Principle 2: Neuroplasticity is the hallmark of nervous system functioning
Functional Organization of the Nervous System
- From an anatomical standpoint, the brain and the spinal cord together make u the
central nervous system
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