[PSYB65H3] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (67 pages long!)

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Published on 30 Mar 2017
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PSYB65H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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LEC 01 Introduction to Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology scientific study of the relationship between behaviour and the brain
- Draws from many disciplines anatomy, biology, pharmacology, philosophy
- Experimental vs clinical
The brain hypothesis the brain is the source of behaviour
The neuron hypothesis the unit of brain structure and function is the neuron
History
- Hermann Ebbinghaus - famous for self-experimentation how memories fade with time
- Trephination - surgical intervention where a hole is drilled, incised or scraped into the skull using
simple surgical tools
o Happened early on from Neolithic era, called Neolithic trephination
o Prehistoric era multiple trephination
- Modern neurosurgery
o Craniotomy (surgery for brain tumor removal)/ectomy (surgical removal of something)
Depressed skull fractures
ICP monitoring/treatment
Subdural/epidural hematomas
Deep brain stimulation
- Biological basis of human experience/behaviour changed from cephalocentric to cardiocentric
o Cephalocentric viewpoint that brain is the source of reasoning and all human
behaviour
Alcmaeon
Hippocrates
Plato
o Cardiocentric viewpoint that the heart is the organ of the human mind or
consciousness
Empedocles of Acragas
Aristotle
- Western civilization
o Philosophy
o Natural sciences
- Ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman Thinkers
o Nature and locus of the mind
o Advances in mathematics and philosophy
- Early Greek Medicine (Prior to 500 BCE) medical practice was controlled by priests/Templar
physicians
- Alcmaeon of Croton
o Objectively dissected animals
o Established medical school
o Holistic approach
o Elemental theory of matter
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- Hippocrates founder of modern medicine
o Brain hypothesis contralateral organization
o Epilepsy appears to e i o ay ore diie, or ore sared tha other diseases,
but has a natural cause from which it originates like other affections. Men think it is
diie erely eause they dot uderstad it. But if they alled eerythig diie
which they do not understand, why, there would be no end of divine things. I hold that
the brain is the most powerful organ of the human body... (the) eyes, ears, tongue,
hads ad feet at i aordae ith the diseret of the rai.
- Aristotle cardiocentric
o Psyche = mind
Mind was nonmaterial
Human thought, perception and emotion
Position of mentalism idea that there is a separate mind with every sort of
tangible substrate
- Galen
o Brain hypothesis
o Ventricular localization
o Bodily fluids/humors
- ROMAN EMPIRE
o Dark Ages psychological questions were too often the province of religion
o 12th CE see a change
Cultural and economic revival
Establishment of unis
Prior to the renaissance, there was a period of terrible strife
o 15&16th CE
Periods of exploration, discovery, artistic achievement
Invention of mass printing
- Nicolaus Copernicus astronomer
o The place of human beings in the universe
o Held the Heliocentric viewpoint vs what most people held - geocentric viewpoint
o Heliocentric Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar
System
o Geocentric earth is the centre of the universe
- Galileo Galilei astronomer
o Dialogue of the two greatest systems of the world, the Ptolemaic and the Copernican
o 1633 - Tried and found guilty by the Vatican
o Avoided torture through indefinite house arrest and became almost totally blind and
died there
o 1992 - Pope John Paul II acknowledged that the Vatican had erred in convicting Galileo
o Utilized method of manipulating and measuring variables
o Advocate for freedom of inquiry
- Andreas Vesalius anatomist
o Successor to Hippocrates and Galen
o Challenged the ventricular hypothesis
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