Lectures - Midterm.docx

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
[Type the document title]
Lecture 1
http://www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~psyb65/
Global Organization of the Human Brain
Central Nervous System (CNS) Spinal Cord & Brain
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) all other nervous that serves the rest of the body
When drawn schematically, the human brain’s overall organization is very similar to any higher
order mammal
Brain stem = very lose term, something that holds the brain by
Medulla and cerebellum = two major areas of the brain
Hindbrain
Cerebellum
Sensory motor integration sends in sensory input and sends out motor output
Balance ability to stand erect
Sticks out at the back of the brain
Medulla
Basic life processes keeps a person alive at the most basic level, eg. Heart rate, breathing, etc
Midbrain
Reticular Formation
Sleep / wakefulness cycles
Damage results in a coma (most likely)
Forebrain the most anterior part of the brain
Biggest in the human brain, relative to other parts of the brain
Thalamus
Huge central portion of the forebrain
Major relay center, particular in humans and higher mammals conveys information to the
appropriate place in the neocortex
Hypothalamus
Controls life functions (but not primitive functions) that keeps the individual alive eg. Thirst,
hungry, territoriality, sexual behavior
Anything that feels good
Limbic System
Deals with emotions and emotionality
Allows animals to feel an emotion
Amygdala
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Cerebral Cortex
Most anterior structure (very front of the brain), not connected to anything but curves back and
covers everything
Also known as the neocortex
Involved in higher intellectual functions speech, reasoning, intelligence, etc.
Comprises of most of the human brain (~85%)
Evolution of the Human Brain
As we developed greater intellectual ability, nuclei were developed (got bigger) so that more
information could be processed
Developed these bumps (excess neurons, nuclei) that contained cells that were linked to
specific pathways
We have developed as humans a bigger cerebral cortex that gives us intellectual abilities and
problem solving
We don’t have the biggest cerebral cortex, elephants do
If compared by cortex to body size, dolphins are dominant; humans are second
Size of the structure are directly related to the importance and use of that particular function in
that particular species
Olfactory bulb processes smell; relatively big in rats whom are dependent on smell
Human Brain Development
“You as a species as your are born til you mature go through the same evolutionary process as the
developing of the species”
Humans have gills and tails that are resorbed during our developing
At 3 weeks,
Certain nuclei begins to develop
7 weeks forebrain is beginning to get larger
9 weeks forebrain continues to get bigger and folds upon itself, cerebral cortex (although starts off at
the anterior portion of the brain) begins to develop and as there is not enough room in the human skull
as it develops, it pushes against the skill and bends around the skull; virtually covers everything except
the cerebellum
As the brain develops, more and more brain cells are developed (and as skull remains to be cramped),
the brain folds
Maclean’s Triune Theory
There are three basic components to the human brain
The human brain is really three brains in one (three basic components):
Reptilian Brain brain stem basic things that keep species alive have began existing in
reptiles and that we haven’t thrown that away yet (humans still have it)
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Old-mammalian Brain (Paleo-mammalian Brain) limbic system on top of the basic
things that we still are, we added on the ability to be emotional (emotional repertoire);
those are found in old mammals and we haven’t thrown it away, we still have it in our
brain
New-mammalian Brain (Neo-mammalian Brain) process intellectual functioning
(higher intellectual functioning) allows problem solving, read, write, language, and
plan which has been added on to our older part of the brain
Lecture 2
Slide 1
Through evolution, we have added more and more complex processes to our brain
Territoriality
We maintain the same behaviours but more complicated
Today’s Lecture: Cerebral Cortex in Detail vascular supply of the cerebral cortex, meninges
Cerebral Cortex
Not smooth unlike other species where the cortex is very smooth, the human brain tries to
add on cells (evolutionary pressure to make humans smarter organisms)
Mountains and Valleys (the bumps) tells us where and what the functions are
Valley Sulci, Sulcus
Mountain Gyri, Gulci
Two hemispheres brain is separated and connected by a fiber pathway
Right Hemisphere controls the left hand side of the body; gets information from the
left hand side of the body
Left Hemisphere controls the right hand side of the body
Majority of the time, brain gets information from the environment and sends to cortex where it
takes information and decides on functions
Corpus Callosum fibers that connects the left hemisphere with the right hemisphere
(connections analogous portions of the brain)
Fibers run across the two hemispheres; allows communication
Slide 2
Three main sulci:
Fissures when the sulci are really big
Longitudinal Fissures separates the left hemisphere from the right hemisphere (down
the center)
Central Sulcus (Central Fissure) separates anterior and posterior of the brain;
separates frontal and parietal lobe
Sylvian Fissure (Lateral Fissure) separates the lobes
Lobes 4 lobes that have different structures and functions ; each lobe takes care of some
individual function
Frontal Lobe in the front
Parietal Lobe behind central sulcus
Occipital Lobe at the very back of head; function in vision
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Document Summary

Central nervous system (cns) spinal cord & brain. Peripheral nervous system (pns) all other nervous that serves the rest of the body. When drawn schematically, the human brain"s overall organization is very similar to any higher order mammal. Brain stem = very lose term, something that holds the brain by. Medulla and cerebellum = two major areas of the brain. Sensory motor integration sends in sensory input and sends out motor output. Sticks out at the back of the brain. Basic life processes keeps a person alive at the most basic level, eg. heart rate, breathing, etc. Damage results in a coma (most likely) Forebrain the most anterior part of the brain. Biggest in the human brain, relative to other parts of the brain. Major relay center, particular in humans and higher mammals conveys information to the appropriate place in the neocortex. Controls life functions (but not primitive functions) that keeps the individual alive eg. thirst, hungry, territoriality, sexual behavior.

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