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Midterm

midterm study guide (lecture notes) - 20 pages of SOLID lecture notes (lecture 1-6)

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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Lecture 1
http://www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~psyb65/
Global Organization of the Human Brain
Central Nervous System (CNS) Spinal Cord & Brain
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) all other nervous that serves the rest of the body
When drawn schematically, the human brains overall organization is very similar to
any higher order mammal
Brain stem = very lose term, something that holds the brain by
Medulla and cerebellum = two major areas of the brain
Hindbrain
Cerebellum
Sensory motor integration sends in sensory input and sends out motor output
Balance ability to stand erect
Sticks out at the back of the brain
Medulla
Basic life processes keeps a person alive at the most basic level, eg. Heart rate,
breathing, etc
Midbrain
Reticular Formation
Sleep / wakefulness cycles
Damage results in a coma (most likely)
Forebrain the most anterior part of the brain
Biggest in the human brain, relative to other parts of the brain
Thalamus
Huge central portion of the forebrain
Major relay center, particular in humans and higher mammals conveys
information to the appropriate place in the neocortex
Hypothalamus
Controls life functions (but not primitive functions) that keeps the individual alive
eg. Thirst, hungry, territoriality, sexual behavior
Anything that feels good
Limbic System
Deals with emotions and emotionality
www.notesolution.com
[Type the document title]
Allows animals to feel an emotion
Amygdala
Cerebral Cortex
Most anterior structure (very front of the brain), not connected to anything but
curves back and covers everything
Also known as the neocortex
Involved in higher intellectual functions speech, reasoning, intelligence, etc.
Comprises of most of the human brain (~85%)
Evolution of the Human Brain
As we developed greater intellectual ability, nuclei were developed (got bigger) so
that more information could be processed
Developed these bumps (excess neurons, nuclei) that contained cells that
were linked to specific pathways
We have developed as humans a bigger cerebral cortex that gives us intellectual
abilities and problem solving
We dont have the biggest cerebral cortex, elephants do
If compared by cortex to body size, dolphins are dominant; humans are
second
Size of the structure are directly related to the importance and use of that particular
function in that particular species
Olfactory bulb processes smell; relatively big in rats whom are dependent on smell
Human Brain Development
You as a species as your are born til you mature go through the same evolutionary process
as the developing of the species
Humans have gills and tails that are resorbed during our developing
At 3 weeks,
Certain nuclei begins to develop
7 weeks forebrain is beginning to get larger
9 weeks forebrain continues to get bigger and folds upon itself, cerebral cortex (although
starts off at the anterior portion of the brain) begins to develop and as there is not enough
room in the human skull as it develops, it pushes against the skill and bends around the
skull; virtually covers everything except the cerebellum
As the brain develops, more and more brain cells are developed (and as skull remains to be
cramped), the brain folds
www.notesolution.com
[Type the document title]
Macleans Triune Theory
There are three basic components to the human brain
The human brain is really three brains in one (three basic components):
Reptilian Brain brain stem basic things that keep species alive have
began existing in reptiles and that we havent thrown that away yet (humans
still have it)
Old-mammalian Brain (Paleo-mammalian Brain) limbic system on top of
the basic things that we still are, we added on the ability to be emotional
(emotional repertoire); those are found in old mammals and we havent
thrown it away, we still have it in our brain
New-mammalian Brain (Neo-mammalian Brain) process intellectual
functioning (higher intellectual functioning) allows problem solving, read,
write, language, and plan which has been added on to our older part of the
brain
Lecture 2
Slide 1
Through evolution, we have added more and more complex processes to our brain
Territoriality
We maintain the same behaviours but more complicated
Todays Lecture: Cerebral Cortex in Detail vascular supply of the cerebral
cortex, meninges
Cerebral Cortex
Not smooth unlike other species where the cortex is very smooth, the human brain
tries to add on cells (evolutionary pressure to make humans smarter organisms)
Mountains and Valleys (the bumps) tells us where and what the functions are
Valley Sulci, Sulcus
Mountain Gyri, Gulci
Two hemispheres brain is separated and connected by a fiber pathway
Right Hemisphere controls the left hand side of the body; gets
information from the left hand side of the body
Left Hemisphere controls the right hand side of the body
Majority of the time, brain gets information from the environment and sends to
cortex where it takes information and decides on functions
Corpus Callosum fibers that connects the left hemisphere with the right
hemisphere (connections analogous portions of the brain)
Fibers run across the two hemispheres; allows communication
Slide 2
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Description
[Type the document title] Lecture 1 http://www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~psyb65/ Global Organization of the Human Brain Central Nervous System (CNS) Spinal Cord & Brain Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) all other nervous that serves the rest of the body When drawn schematically, the human brains overall organization is very similar to any higher order mammal Brain stem = very lose term, something that holds the brain by Medulla and cerebellum = two major areas of the brain Hindbrain Cerebellum Sensory motor integration sends in sensory input and sends out motor output Balance ability to stand erect Sticks out at the back of the brain Medulla Basic life processes keeps a person alive at the most basic level, eg. Heart rate, breathing, etc Midbrain Reticular Formation Sleep / wakefulness cycles Damage results in a coma (most likely) Forebrain the most anterior part of the brain Biggest in the human brain, relative to other parts of the brain Thalamus Huge central portion of the forebrain Major relay center, particular in humans and higher mammals conveys information to the appropriate place in the neocortex Hypothalamus Controls life functions (but not primitive functions) that keeps the individual alive eg. Thirst, hungry, territoriality, sexual behavior Anything that feels good Limbic System Deals with emotions and emotionality www.notesolution.com [Type the document title] Allows animals to feel an emotion Amygdala Cerebral Cortex Most anterior structure (very front of the brain), not connected to anything but curves back and covers everything Also known as the neocortex Involved in higher intellectual functions speech, reasoning, intelligence, etc. Comprises of most of the human brain (~85%) Evolution of the Human Brain As we developed greater intellectual ability, nuclei were developed (got bigger) so that more information could be processed Developed these bumps (excess neurons, nuclei) that contained cells that were linked to specific pathways We have developed as humans a bigger cerebral cortex that gives us intellectual abilities and problem solving We dont have the biggest cerebral cortex, elephants do If compared by cortex to body size, dolphins are dominant; humans are second Size of the structure are directly related to the importance and use of that particular function in that particular species Olfactory bulb processes smell; relatively big in rats whom are dependent on smell Human Brain Development You as a species as your are born til you mature go through the same evolutionary process as the developing of the species Humans have gills and tails that are resorbed during our developing At 3 weeks, Certain nuclei begins to develop 7 weeks forebrain is beginning to get larger 9 weeks forebrain continues to get bigger and folds upon itself, cerebral cortex (although starts off at the anterior portion of the brain) begins to develop and as there is not enough room in the human skull as it develops, it pushes against the skill and bends around the skull; virtually covers everything except the cerebellum As the brain develops, more and more brain cells are developed (and as skull remains to be cramped), the brain folds www.notesolution.com [Type the document title] Macleans Triune Theory There are three basic components to the human brain The human brain is really three brains in one (three basic components): Reptilian Brain brain stem basic things that keep species alive have began existing in reptiles and that we havent thrown that away yet (humans still have it) Old-mammalian Brain (Paleo-mammalian Brain) limbic system on top of the basic things that we still are, we added on the ability to be emotional (emotional repertoire); those are found in old mammals and we havent thrown it away, we still have it in our brain New-mammalian Brain (Neo-mammalian Brain) process intellectual functioning (higher intellectual functioning) allows problem solving, read, write, language, and plan which has been added on to our older part of the brain Lecture 2 Slide 1 Through evolution, we have added more and more complex processes to our brain Territoriality We maintain the same behaviours but more complicated Todays Lecture: Cerebral Cortex in Detail vascular supply of the cerebral cortex, meninges Cerebral Cortex Not smooth unlike other species where the cortex is very smooth, the human brain tries to add on cells (evolutionary pressure to make humans smarter organisms) Mountains and Valleys (the bumps) tells us where and what the functions are Valley Sulci, Sulcus Mountain Gyri, Gulci Two hemispheres brain is separated and connected by a fiber pathway Right Hemisphere controls the left hand side of the body; gets information from the left hand side of the body Left Hemisphere controls the right hand side of the body Majority of the time, brain gets information from the environment and sends to cortex where it takes information and decides on functions Corpus Callosum fibers that connects the left hemisphere with the right hemisphere (connections analogous portions of the brain) Fibers run across the two hemispheres; allows communication Slide 2 www.notesolution.com [Type the document title] Three main sulci: Fissures when the sulci are really big Longitudinal Fissures separates the left hemisphere from the right hemisphere (down the center) Central Sulcus (Central Fissure) separates anterior and posterior of the brain; separates frontal and parietal lobe Sylvian Fissure (Lateral Fissure) separates the lobes Lobes 4 lobes that have different structures and functions ; each lobe takes care of some individual function Frontal Lobe in the front Parietal Lobe behind central sulcus Occipital Lobe at the very back of head; function in vision Temporal Lobe underneath the sylvian fissure Within each lobe, theres always a primary cortex which deals with some primary function (major function) and association cortex Primary Cortex primary receptive area (receives input from the outside world for the lobe): sensory modality; motor cortex: controls output to muscles o Deals with sensory input or motor output Associational Cortex surrounds and beside the primary cortex o The computing power of the brain o Processes more complex phenomena - takes simpler information and builds on it to create more knowledge about it o Higher order; newest in terms of evolution o In more evolutionary evolved animals, there was a higher percentage of associational cortex than primary cortex allows more complex intelligence thinking Slide 3 Brodmann Mapped the brain according to its function; used numbers Numbers indicates the primary areas (primary cortex) of each lobe 4, 6: Frontal Cortex 1,2,3: Primary Strip in Parietal Cortex 17: Primary Area in Occipital Cortex information from eyes go into back of brain in occipital cortex; primary receptive area for vision 41: Primary Area of Temporal Lobe primary receptive area for hearing: where information from ears go Slide 4 Frontal Lobe Begins at the anterior portion (front part) of the brain until it hits the central sulcus Primary Function: Controls motor movement (motor output / motor control) At the more anterior portion of the Frontal Lobe: Planning www.notesolution.com
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