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Final

final study guide (lecture notes) - 21 pages of SOLID notes (lectures 7-11)

35 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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Lecture 7
Main Teaching Points
Brain from the pharmacology perspective
Self-induced drugs
How drugs work
The different kinds of drugs stimulants
Global Overview of How Drugs are Classified
1.Prescription drugs drugs that doctors prescribe
What drugs are considered legal or illegal varies over time and across
different countries
2.Over-the-counter drugs drugs that do not require prescriptions
3.Social Drugs nicotine, caffeine, alcohol things that are not bought from
drugstores
4.Drugs that are not produced commercially or if they are produced
commercially, they are not produced for the psychoactive effects
Marijuana
Airplane Glue produced commercially but does not produced for its
psychoactive effects
Tolerance most drugs if taken repeatedly will result in a decreasing behavioural
effect
Example of Cause with Stimulant:
oWhenever a drug (ex. stimulant) is taken normally, it will cause excess
amounts of transmitters to be released due to different mechanisms winds
up with more transmitter substances stimulating the postsynaptic neurons
(receptors)
www.notesolution.com
oAs more and more neurotransmitters are released and there is hyper-
stimulation of the receptors, receptors are bombarded; there is classic
response from postsynaptic receptor that will result in the reduce the number
of sensitive of the postsynaptic receptors
oWill start reducing the number of receptors that it has to compensate for
overactivation postsynaptic will not fire as often (self-regulates / tones down
sensitivity of receptors)
Example of Cause with Depressant:
oDepressant is slowing down functional activity decreases activation of
postsynaptic cell realizes that it is not hitting the normal number activity
that it should, will start to increase in the number / sensitivity of
postsynaptic receptor
oWill respond by building more receptors to compensate for the depression of
brain same amount of drugs that will stop 4 receptors will not have to stop
8 receptors
oInstead of person being depressed, the drugs will no longer have the same
dramatic event, wont be relaxed as much
Depends on the drug that whether a tolerance effect may be produced
oRitalin drugs for ADHD / ADD has no tolerance affect
oLSD drugs that have tolerance effect
Withdrawal most drugs if taken for a prolonged period of time will result in the
dependency of that drug (withdrawal effects)
Alcohol valium used as treatment to reduce withdrawal effects
Coffee, cigarettes
Causes:
oBrain has adjusted itself (less sensitive / fewer receptors)
oTaking stimulant away will result in normal amounts of firing but the
postsynaptic membrane dont have that many receptors (due to prolong
effects of stimulants) the postsynaptic neuron will be under stimulated
www.notesolution.com
oNormal amounts of stimulation will leave the postsynaptic cell under
stimulated
The effects of withdrawal are the exact opposite of the effects of the drug
Those are on stimulants will become depressed; those that are depressed will become
hyper
Results if the individual has been on the drug for a long time
Stimulants: Brain will adjust itself, and within a few days, will get back to normal
not life threatening
Depressants: Will go through a period of hyper stimulation phase which if severe
enough can result in seizures and death
oSymptoms: Shaking, Seizures
oCan be life threatening depending on severity
oNever take someone directly off depressions will risk hyper stimulation of
the brain
Want to take the individual off behaviourally
Addiction the individual wants to have the drug; the person that has been exposed to the
drug wants to have it
Behavioural dependent behavioural / physical requirement for the drug
There are different types:
oPsychological addiction behavioural dependence on the drug;
very difficult to define
The person behavioural feels like they really need the substance
oPhysical addiction results in physical withdraw symptom /
psychophysical response
General Rule: The more rapid the effect of the drug, the more addicting it is
Addictiveness depends on method of administration
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 7 Main Teaching Points Brain from the pharmacology perspective Self-induced drugs How drugs work The different kinds of drugs stimulants Global Overview of How Drugs are Classified 1. Prescription drugs drugs that doctors prescribe What drugs are considered legal or illegal varies over time and across different countries 2. Over-the-counter drugs drugs that do not require prescriptions 3. Social Drugs nicotine, caffeine, alcohol things that are not bought from drugstores 4. Drugs that are not produced commercially or if they are produced commercially, they are not produced for the psychoactive effects Marijuana Airplane Glue produced commercially but does not produced for its psychoactive effects Tolerance most drugs if taken repeatedly will result in a decreasing behavioural effect Example of Cause with Stimulant: o Whenever a drug (ex. stimulant) is taken normally, it will cause excess amounts of transmitters to be released due to different mechanisms winds up with more transmitter substances stimulating the postsynaptic neurons (receptors) www.notesolution.com o As more and more neurotransmitters are released and there is hyper- stimulation of the receptors, receptors are bombarded; there is classic response from postsynaptic receptor that will result in the reduce the number of sensitive of the postsynaptic receptors o Will start reducing the number of receptors that it has to compensate for overactivation postsynaptic will not fire as often (self-regulates / tones down sensitivity of receptors) Example of Cause with Depressant: o Depressant is slowing down functional activity decreases activation of postsynaptic cell realizes that it is not hitting the normal number activity that it should, will start to increase in the number / sensitivity of postsynaptic receptor o Will respond by building more receptors to compensate for the depression of brain same amount of drugs that will stop 4 receptors will not have to stop 8 receptors o Instead of person being depressed, the drugs will no longer have the same dramatic event, wont be relaxed as much Depends on the drug that whether a tolerance effect may be produced o Ritalin drugs for ADHD / ADD has no tolerance affect o LSD drugs that have tolerance effect Withdrawal most drugs if taken for a prolonged period of time will result in the dependency of that drug (withdrawal effects) Alcohol valium used as treatment to reduce withdrawal effects Coffee, cigarettes Causes: o Brain has adjusted itself (less sensitive / fewer receptors) o Taking stimulant away will result in normal amounts of firing but the postsynaptic membrane dont have that many receptors (due to prolong effects of stimulants) the postsynaptic neuron will be under stimulated www.notesolution.com o Normal amounts of stimulation will leave the postsynaptic cell under stimulated The effects of withdrawal are the exact opposite of the effects of the drug Those are on stimulants will become depressed; those that are depressed will become hyper Results if the individual has been on the drug for a long time Stimulants: Brain will adjust itself, and within a few days, will get back to normal not life threatening Depressants: Will go through a period of hyper stimulation phase which if severe enough can result in seizures and death o Symptoms: Shaking, Seizures o Can be life threatening depending on severity o Never take someone directly off depressions will risk hyper stimulation of the brain Want to take the individual off behaviourally Addiction the individual wants to have the drug; the person that has been exposed to the drug wants to have it Behavioural dependent behavioural / physical requirement for the drug There are different types: o Psychological addiction behavioural dependence on the drug; very difficult to define The person behavioural feels like they really need the substance o Physical addiction results in physical withdraw symptom / psychophysical response General Rule: The more rapid the effect of the drug, the more addicting it is Addictiveness depends on method of administration www.notesolution.com Cocaine Gives people slight activity level (just like effect of coffee, tea) Mildly addicting quality slow onset of desired effect May be mildly addicting or not addicting at all Crack Cocaine More rapid effect very strong and fast very addicting Instead of going to digestive system where it is digested, the individual experiences and instant rush Drugs Stimulants All stimulants causes arousal in cortical EEG EEG will shift into an arousal state; inhibits sleep Caffeine Mildest Found in coffee and tea There are different levels of caffeine in different coffee / tea Caffeine in tea is half of that of coffee Inhibits sleep Tolerance: Some tolerance does develop but very little Withdrawal Symptoms: Headache and constipation To get a withdrawal symptom, must be on high doses of caffeine about 6-8 cups / day Most medications for headaches have caffeine in it (codeine) caffeine helps reduce headaches www.notesolution.com
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