Lecture 1: Introduction to Brain and Behaviors
•Pay attention to the normal brain function and the diseased brain function
•Course site: www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~psyb65/
Overall Look of the Nervous System
•The nervous system is divided into two major parts
oCentral Nervous System: made with of the brain and the spinal cord.
oPeripheral Nervous System: made up of all the other nerves (the nerves
throughout your body)
•Organization of the nervous system
oThere is no dividing line between the brain and the spinal cord. The spinal
cord goes into the frame magma and into the brain. The only way to tell is the
gradual change in the cell types.
oWhen the brain is being seen, you usually see the cerebral cortex and the
oThe human brain is somewhat identical to the brain of a rat, dog or higher
animals in terms of overall organization
oAt the back of the brain there is the spinal cord. As you more forward you can
break the brain into forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.
Hindbrain: is known as the brain stem. Major components of the
hindbrain are the cerebellum and the medulla. The cerebellum is
generally involved in sensory-motor integration (this means that it
puts together sensory input and motor output). It allows you to stand
up with two legs, gives you balance, gives you the ability to maneuver,
keeps you from falling backwards or forwards. When the cerebellum is
damaged you would look like someone who is drunk. The medulla is
responsible for basic life processes, such as heart rate, respiration so it
keeps you alive. Responsible for the most basic functions of the body.
Not the place to have a stroke or a tumor.
Midbrain: Major structure is the reticular formation (composed of
number of different nuclei). The reticular formation is responsible in
the sleep wakefulness cycles. It wakes us up and puts us back to sleep.
If there is damage, and you don’t wake up it is called a coma.
Forebrain: The most interior portion of the brain. The human brain by
mass is mostly forebrain. The thalamus (the big central portion).
Underneath the thalamus is the hypothalamus. The thalamus is a