[PSYC12H3] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (81 pages long)

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PSYC12H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Psychology of Prejudice
January 14th 2016
Lecture Two:
Discrimination when buying a new car
o Four Twin Testers (black male, white male, black female, white female)
Age
Education
Attractiveness
Dress
Script
Same dealer
Same car
o Ayres & Siegelman (1995)
Black males are being asked to pay $1,000 more for the same car at the same dealership
than white males.
White males are the ones who can afford it the most.
Black females are also being asked to pay more.
Slight gender effect (white females being asked to pay more than white males)
Race effect pops out (especially black males)
o Why would salespeople:
Ask more money from women?
Ask more money from Blacks?
Level of education
Saving vs. spending habits
Women seen as less knowledgeable about cars
Outgroup vs. ingroup based on race/gender
Serious vs. window-shopping buyers
Categorization
o It’s functional to categorize objects/social objects into boxes.
o Hassidic Jews:
Black hats, black suits, beards, ringlet sideburns
Religious, well versed in the old testament
Certain job industries
o Reasons for categorization:
There are an infinite number of stimuli in our environment.
Limited capacity cognitive system
Essential part of learning
Occurs spontaneously without awareness
Stereotypes are traits associated with category.
o E.g., gender, race, age, etc.
o Can be useful in making predictions
o Based on a kernel of truth
o Fast and efficient
o Overgeneralizations; especially when applied to an individual
Groups
o Categorize world into in-groups and out-groups
In-group: groups to which we belong
Out-group: groups to which we don’t belong
o Simplifies social world (us versus them)
o Categorizing accentuates inter-group differences.
o In-group bias: tend to think positively of in-group.
Even minimal groups
E.g., camp; color war
o Out-group homogeneity: tend to think of out-groups as all the same.
Seeing your own group as unique and out-groups as homogenous.
Jane Creba (white female) given more attention than Chantal Dunn (black female) even though both
were gun down by black males.
Romer, Jamieson, & deCoteau
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o African-American are heavily presented in News stories about crime
Accurate representation?
Biased representation?
o TV News cannot report all criminals or victims; selectively samples
o Does the News emphasize one group vs. another for crime?
o How often are African-Americans seen as perpetrators, victims?
Analyzed 11pm newscast on 3 stations in Philadelphia for 3 months
Results:
Perpetrators and victims tend to be of the same race.
10% Black on White vs. 18% White on Black
Whites twice as likely to be seen as victim than perpetrator.
African-Americans actually victims 80% of the time, but only shown 22% vs. 24%
for Whites.
Wen perpetrator was Black, victim shown as White 42% of time vs. 10% in
actuality.
Black on White crime especially likely to make the News.
Blacks are more likely to be victims of White, but this is rarely shown on
the News.
White victims are more newsworthy than Black victims, regardless of the race of the
perpetrator.
White victims of Black perpetrators are especially newsworthy.
E.g., Jane Creba vs. Chantal Dunn
Crime portrayals bias our perceptions and amplify stereotypes.
Parental Influence
o Most 3-4 year olds are aware of race and show clear race preference.
o It’s actually more likely within 6-12 months that children notice the preferences of their
parents.
o How do children learn prejudice?
o Being directly taught by parents?
o Observing parents?
o Most results are inconclusive
o Sinclair, Dunn, & Lowery (2005)
Parents will only influence children when children identify with the patent.
80 parent-child pairs completed:
Pro-White/Anti-Black prejudice scales
Children completes parent identification scale
Preliminary Results:
No correlation between parent and child
When you identify with your parents, and your parent’s prejudice is low, your
prejudice is low.
When you identify with your parents, and your parents prejudice is high, your
prejudice is high.
Children who don’t identify with their parent, you respond inversely to their
position.
E.g., they respond pro black, you respond anti black
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Document Summary

Discrimination when buying a new car: four twin testers (black male, white male, black female, white female) Black males are being asked to pay ,000 more for the same car at the same dealership than white males. White males are the ones who can afford it the most. Black females are also being asked to pay more. Race effect pops out (especially black males) Slight gender effect (white females being asked to pay more than white males: why would salespeople: Women seen as less knowledgeable about cars. It"s functional to categorize objects/social objects into boxes. Black hats, black suits, beards, ringlet sideburns. Religious, well versed in the old testament. Certain job industries: reasons for categorization: There are an infinite number of stimuli in our environment. Stereotypes are traits associated with category: e. g. , gender, race, age, etc, can be useful in making predictions, based on a kernel of truth, fast and efficient, overgeneralizations; especially when applied to an individual.

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