[PSYC12H3] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 108 pages long Study Guide!

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PSYC12H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSYC02: Ch. 1 Introduction To The Study Of Stereotyping & Prejudice
“Groups are basic building blocks of society”
o Membership in a group can be restricted on the basis of special skills, family relations, gender,
power, etc.
o Groups allow people to live longer, happier, and more fulfilling lives
o Pros: Survival benefits and allows for closer ties to members of own group
o Cons: Members of their own group tend to be suspicious and rejecting of members of other
groups, and mate competition & mate retention
Group members tend to favour their own groups (called ingroups) over other groups to which they do
not belong (termed outgroups).
o Ingroup: Any group with which one affiliates themselves. Any group to which one belongs.
o Outgroup: Any group with which one does not affiliate themselves. Any group to which one
does not belong.
Even when group membership is based on the most arbitrary criteria (i.e., randomly assigning people
to group A or group B, is an example of a minimal group), people tend to show preference for
members of their own group over those of other groups.
o Minimal group: Groups formed on arbitrary or random criteria (i.e., random assignment).
People form negative feelings about other groups (prejudice) and believe that certain characteristics
are associated with other groups (stereotypes).
o Prejudice: A biased evaluation of a group, based on real or imagined characteristics of the
group members.
o Stereotype: A set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people.
Stereotypes and prejudice can be a reflection of intergroup conflict; violence & hostility
Some of the most intense intergroup hostility has been based on a difference in religious beliefs
Intergroup hostility suggests that there is no rational basis for disliking other because they belong to
another group (outgroups).
Why is the study of prejudice & stereotyping important?
o To understand the negative influences on the thoughts, feelings, and behaviour of people in
their daily lives, and how they relate to the targets on their prejudice.
o To understand how negative attitudes form basis for negative intergroup behaviour
o Examine how stereotyping and prejudice can be reduced or eliminated
All of history’s wars, battles and other acts of group violence have been driven by some form of
prejudice, stereotyping, and/or discrimination.
There are those who believe that prejudice and stereotyping are no longer a problem in the United b/c
racism has declined dramatically as a result of desegregation and affirmative action policies in hiring.
o “Overt” expressions of racial prejudice and intergroup hatred have declined greatly, racial
prejudice and stereotypes have not disappeared.
Defining Stereotyping
Lippmann’s “Stereotype”
The word “stereotype” originally derives from a term to describe a printing process in which fixed
casts of material are reproduced.
Walter Lippmann used the word “stereotype” to describe the tendency of people to think of someone
or something in similar terms that is, as having similar attributes based on a common feature
shared by each.
Lippmann said we simplify complex ideas into general “pictures in our heads” of the world
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Stereotypes tell us what social information is important to perceive and to disregard in our
environment.
o This process tends to confirm preexisting stereotypes by paying attention to stereotype-
consistent information and disregarding information that is inconsistent with our stereotypes.
Stated that the origin of stereotypes, which people tend to perceive things from their own cultural
perspective
o The content of stereotypes is largely determined by the culture in which one lives.
Stereotyping: From Bad to Neutral
Researchers soon began to regard stereotyping as a very negative, lazy way of perceiving social groups.
o Stereotyping was seen as an outward indicator of irrational, nonanalytic cognition.
Some researchers characterized stereotypes as examples of rigid thinking.
o Many regarded stereotyping as an external sign of the stereotyper’s moral defectiveness.
Researchers began to move away from the inclusion of assessments of the morality or correctness of
the stereotype or the stereotyper.
o Allport defined a stereotype as “an exaggerated belief associated with a category”.
Researchers in social psychology argued that stereotyping ought to be examined as a normal
psychological process.
The Social-Cognitive Definition
In the early 1970s, researchers came to regard stereotyping as a rather automatic process of
categorization it’s a natural way humans think about the world.
Brigham defined stereotyping as “a generalization made about a group concerning a trait attribution,
which is considered to be unjustified by an observer”.
o A stereotype is any generalization about a group whether an observer (either a member of the
stereotyped group or another observer) believes it is justified or not.
Hamilton & Trolier’s definition of a stereotype is “a cognitive structure that contains the perceivers’
knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about a human group”— this definition tends to be too broad to
accurately capture the true meaning of a stereotype.
o Hamilton & Trolier’s definition included:
The notion that a stereotype is the association between a group and one’s beliefs about a
group.
Also includes one’s knowledge and expectations about the group.
o Hamilton & Trolier’s definition sounds more like the definition of a schema than a stereotype.
Schema: A hierarchically organized, cognitive structure that represents knowledge about
a concept or type of stimulus, and its attribution and the relations between those
attributes.
Fiske & Taylor’s definition of schema: “A schema may be defined as a cognitive structure that
represents knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus, including its attributes and the relations
among those attributes”.
Schemas are broader cognitive structures that contain our knowledge of a stimulus, our expectations
for the motives or behaviour of the stimulus (if a living being), and our feelings toward the stimulus.
o Stereotypes are found within a schema (stereotypes are more specific cognitive structures;
schemas are broader cognitive structures)
o Ex: Librarians
Schema - they work with books, they can help you find a book, you have a positive
feeling towards them because they are there to help you
Stereotype - all librarians are introverted and have poor fashion taste
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Document Summary

1 introduction to the study of stereotyping & prejudice. Group members tend to favour their own groups (called ingroups) over other groups to which they do not belong (termed outgroups): ingroup: any group with which one affiliates themselves. Any group to which one belongs: outgroup: any group with which one does not affiliate themselves. Any group to which one does not belong. Stereotypes and prejudice can be a reflection of intergroup conflict; violence & hostility. Some of the most intense intergroup hostility has been based on a difference in religious beliefs. Intergroup hostility suggests that there is no rational basis for disliking other because they belong to another group (outgroups). All of history"s wars, battles and other acts of group violence have been driven by some form of prejudice, stereotyping, and/or discrimination. The word stereotype originally derives from a term to describe a printing process in which fixed casts of material are reproduced.

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